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mardi 13 juin 2017

Vatican & money ?

Is the Vatican catholic ?

The love of money is the root of all evil.











The Vatican and IOR, see the report below, are not following the encyclical Vix pervenit.

Roma locuta, causa finita... Rome has spoken, the cause is closed... Any rate of interest kills millions of human beings...

Explanations: 


https://vimeo.com/136794177



http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Ben14/b14vixpe.htm


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vix_pervenit


http://www.ior.va/content/dam/ior/documenti/rapporto-annuale/IOR-Annual%20Report%202016.pdf




Invitations 2017
In English

 23, Av. Edouard Dapples, CH 1006 LAUSANNE. SUISSE

Tél: international ++ 41 21 616 88 8

http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2015/12/swiss-positive-money-social-credit.html

François de Siebenthal: The love of money is the root of all evil.

desiebenthal.blogspot.com/.../love-of-money-is-root-of-all-evil.ht...

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3 mai 2009 - Jesus said that the love of money is the root of all evil. This had no meaning for me (although I thought it did) until I read and studied the Social ...

François de Siebenthal: Money creation management by the Swiss ...

desiebenthal.blogspot.com/2013/10/money-creation-management-by-swiss.html

9 oct. 2013 - At least, the SNB controls and limits the money creation and the profits are ... Be praised, my Lord, through those who forgive for love of you; ...

François de Siebenthal: Games to explain money sytems

desiebenthal.blogspot.com/.../games-to-explain-money-sytems.htm...

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25 déc. 2016 - You know that money is created in the form of debts with interest ..... It is really a way to avoid this love of money which is the root of all evils.

The love of money is the root of all evil.Social credit is a solution ...

https://groups.google.com/d/topic/social-credit/x8nMw0Lq5d0

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7 févr. 2017 - François de Siebenthal: Games to explain money sytems ... 2016 - It is the love of money that is the root of all evil, and with this system, there is ...

François de Siebenthal: Federal Council adopts monetary policy report

desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2016/12/federal-council-adopts-monetary-policy.html
23 déc. 2016 - He recently spoke to Francois de Siebenthal, who is a former banker from ..... Helicopter Money: Or How I Stopped Worrying and Love ...



How illuminati are lying, arguments and video from Julian Simon ...

desiebenthal.blogspot.com/2008/08/how-illuminati-are-lying-arguments-and.html
11 août 2008 - François de Siebenthal ... Julian Simon said in his book " the ultimate Resource 1" that he was paid ... Play list for all Julian L. Simon 's videos.


François de Siebenthal: What overpopulation ???

https://desiebenthal.blogspot.com/.../what-overpopulation.html?m=...
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15 févr. 2014 - Steve Moshe and Julian Simon : Human beings are the ultimate resource." Confessions of an economic hitman. overpopulation propaganda.

An interview with a former Swiss banker - Michael Journal

www.michaeljournal.org/.../an-interview-with-a-former-swiss-ban...
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He recently spoke to Francois de Siebenthal, who is a former banker from ... Julian Simon said in his book "The Ultimate Resource 1" that he was paid by those ...June 12, 2017, Monday
The Vatican Bank Is Reporting A 20 Million (c. $22 Million) Increase In Profits

How much money does the Vatican bank have?

About 5.7 billion euros. (That is about $6.3 billion.)

But most of it is not the Vatican's money -- it is the money of thousands of depositors, like religious orders, and bishops, and cardinals.

These depositors have a total of 14,960 accounts at the bank -- down several thousand in the past two years due to Francis' reform efforts. (The Vatican has spent almost four years now combing through the thousands of bank accounts, and closing many down. As Christopher Lamb reported today forThe Tablet (link), "Over the years the IOR had been mired in scandal with accusations that it was being used for money laundering and failing to abide by international financial standards.")

The actual amount of the Vatican's own money at the Vatican bank is a much more modest 636.6 million euro -- about $700 million.

And what does the Vatican do with these funds? Does the IOR invest them in Apple stock, or Tesla, or Priceline? Or in commodities like oil or gold? Or in real estate? Bonds? And if in bonds, the bonds of which countries?

If you are looking for answers to such questions, you won't get them from the Annual Report that the Vatican released today on the 2016 activity of the Vatican bank -- officially called the Istituto per le Opere di Religione(Institute for the Works of Religion, commonly referred to as the IOR).

Here is a link to the actual text of the report, which is a 136-page PDF file, so you may open the file and read the entire report in English. (And I would be happy to receive any insight from a reader into the information this report contains, and what it means.)

There is no record anywhere in this report of the Vatican investing in stock like Apple or IBM or Facebook, or in Italian government 10-year treasury notes.

The results do give certain overall numbers.

For example, as stated at the outset, the total amount of money that the bank manages is about 5.7 billion euros (about $6.3 billion).

That may seem like a lot. And some might speculate, for example, that the Vatican might have earned a profit of, say, 5%, on all of those funds and investments, so, perhaps $315 million...

But that would be off target...

The results show that the bank had 36 million euros in profit, or a bit more than 1% of the total under management. And that is an increase of 20 million euros above the 16 million euros in profit the bank earned in 2015.

"These results," writes Christopher Lamb, "will be seen as a boost for Pope Francis’ Vatican financial reforms, which he has entrusted to Australian Cardinal George Pell. Soon after taking over as Prefect of the Secretariat of the Economy, Cardinal Pell announced a new management of the bank, including appointing billionaire hedge fund guru Michael Hintze to its board."

Lamb also writes: "In the 1970s and 80s, the bank was embroiled in the collapse of two Italian banks, including 'Banco Ambrosiano', whose chairman, Roberto Calvi, was later found hanging from Blackfriars bridge.Crisis then hit in January 2013 when Italy’s central bank blocked all electronic payments through cash machines and credit cards in Vatican City State, caused partly by the IOR failing to keep up to speed with new anti-money laundering rules. These laws were brought in following 9/11 in order to prevent the financing of terrorism. All this meant some cardinals wanted Pope Francis to close down the bank, arguing that St Peter did not have a bank account. This was a view shared by Francis but he later agreed to keep the IOR open provided it was reformed."

A Step Back

Let's take a step back. What is the Vatican bank, and how does it earn its money?

The IOR administers about 15,000 accounts worldwide for religious orders, various Church organizations, and individuals.

Through the bank, the Holy See helps its depositors to move funds to support religious initiatives, like missions, convents, schools and clinics, in places from Brazil to South Sudan to India.

"The IOR strives to serve the global mission of the Catholic Church through the administration of the entrusted assets and providing payment services to the Holy See and related entities, religious orders, other Catholic institutions, clergy, employees of the Holy See and the accredited diplomatic bodies," the report states (p. 13).

The bank invests the funds entrusted to it in very conservative ways, the report says.

"On behalf of its clients," the report says, "the Institute carries out financial activities... and offers the following services: acceptance of deposits, asset management, certain custodial functions, international payment transfers through correspondent banks, and holding salary and pension accounts of employees of the Holy See and the Vatican City State. The Institute protects its clients’ assets by primarily investing in financial instruments characterized as very low risk (e.g. government bonds, bonds issued by institutions and international organizations, as well as deposits in the interbank market)." (pp. 13-14)

So, can we get a clearer idea of who actually uses the bank?

"Measured by assets entrusted, the most important group of clients, was religious orders," the report states. "They accounted for more than half of our client base in 2016 (54%), followed by Roman Curia departments, Holy See Offices and nunciatures (11%), entities of Canon Law (9%), cardinals, bishops and clergy (8%), episcopal conferences, dioceses and parishes (8%), with the remainder split between various others, such as Vatican employees and pensioners and Canon Law foundations." (p. 25)

One question I have is why among the clients there can be a few "dioceses and parishes" (if they have 8% of the total asset under management of $6.3 billion, then they have some $500 million on deposit at the bank) and not an account for every diocese and parish in the world. Why not? I do not know the answer to that question. Of course, having every Catholic diocese and parish in the world open an account at the Vatican bank would arguably make the Vatican bank, for funds deposited, one of the largest, if not the largest, in the world.

The report explains the income figures this way: "In 2016, IOR’s Net profit was EUR 36.0m (2015: EUR 16.1m). The increase from 2015 was mainly due to improved results from Net Income for trading activities, to theremeasurement of a provision for tax remediation to foreign countries recognized in 2015 and to the decrease in Administrative expenses... The most significant source of revenues is the profit derived from Treasury activities on proprietary portfolios. The most important component was derived from bond yield which contributed for EUR 39.6 million (interests EUR 38,0 million plus trading results EUR 1.6 million)." (p. 25)

So, from this passage we learn that the increase in income that the Vatican bank earned in 2016 derived from:

1) trading activities gave improved results

2) recalculating taxes owed to various countries (apparently, recalculating down) allowed higher profits

3) less overhead in the offices themselves enabled greater profits

4) bond yields provided almost all of the profits

The report says "bond yields" provided 38 million euros, and "trading in bonds" 1.6 million euros, for a total of 39.6 million of profit during 2016.

And the total profit for the year was only 36 million euros. So there had to be some losses somewhere else.

And there were. In trading activities.

The report says, "Net Income for trading activities recognized a net loss of EUR 9.0m compared to a net loss of EUR 15.4m in 2015." 

So, both in 2105 and 2016, the IOR traders lost millions of euros.

"The result," the report says, "was mainly affected by the decrease in UCI unit investment compared to 2015, amounting to EUR -12.8 million. The improvement in the results was mainly due to the positive performance of the bonds held in the proprietary portfolio in 2016, compared to 2015, to market trends during the year."

So, in short, there was a 12.8 million euro loss due to a decline in the "UCI unit investment" (not sure what that was, and I do not see it defined anywhere in the report).

So, from this report, we are told that the main culprit for the loss was a single "bad trade."

We are also told that the Vatican bank traders made a profit of... 94,000 euros (just a bit more than $100,000) in trading stocks(!).

"Equity securities," the report says, "recorded a profit of EUR 94,000 in 2016, versus a loss of EUR 307,000 in 2015, while FX activity contributed for EUR 2.0 million versus EUR 1.9 million in 2015." (FX activity refers to trading in currencies.)

Still, there is no list of stocks bought or sold. Again, we have no idea if the Vatican bank bought gold mining shares or technology stocks or bank stocks or consumer goods stocks -- such details are not part of this report.

We do glimpse a bank that is shedding employees, slowly.

"Administrative Expenses were EUR 19.1m in 2016 (2015: EUR 23.4m)," the report says. So there were 4.3 million euros less spent on administering the bank. 

The report continues: "This includes Staff Expenses of EUR 10.2m in 2016, in reduction with the prior year amount (2015: EUR 11.3m, or - 9.1%). As of December 31, 2016, the IOR had a total of 102 personnel (2015: 109). During the year, six employees retired and one resigned."

So, the banks spent 1.1 million euros less on salaries in 2016 than in 2015, and dropped from 109 to 102 staff people. (If those 7 people together were earning the 1.1 million euros saved, they were earning an average of 157,200 euros each, or close to $175,000 each.

And: "Administrative expenses also include expenses for professional services, which decreased from EUR 7.6m in 2015 to EUR 4.0m in 2016. This was due to lower extraordinary costs incurred during the year from the completion of certain projects."

So the bank spent 3.6 million euros less on "professional services" -- that is close to a $4 million saving.

We come to the "bottom line" results on page 129 of the report, where these figures are given (I give the text of the statement in italics):

The Financial Statements may be summarized as follows:

BALANCE SHEET
                                EUR000 [Note: meaning figures require adding 3 zeros]
Total assets                                       3,268,890
Total liabilities                                 2,596,290
Net assets                                            672,600

PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT

Net result from financial activities     42,762
Net operating profit                            36,001 
Profit available for distribution         36,001   

The IOR Press Release explaining the 2016 statement is as follows:

Vatican City, 12 June 2017 – For the fifth year, the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR) has published its financial statements.

The financial statements have been audited by the independent audit firm Deloitte & Touche S.p.A.

The Board of Superintendence of the Istituto per le Opere di Religione unanimously approved the 2016 financial statements on April 26 and proposed to the Cardinals Commission the distribution of the entire amount of profits to the Holy See.

In 2016 IOR has continued to serve with prudence and provide specialized financial services to the Catholic Church worldwide and the Vatican City state. The highlights are as follows.
  • In 2016 the IOR served nearly 15,000 clients worldwide who entrusted to the IOR assets worth Euro 5.7 billion at the end of the year (Euro 5.8 billion in 2015), of which Euro 3.7 billion related to assets under management and under custody. Many initiatives were taken throughout the year to increase customer focus in accordance with IOR’s mission.
  • The Institute continued to reduce its operational expenses, which decreased to Euro 19.1 million from Euro 23.4 million in 2015 notably due to rationalisation of contracts with service providers.
  • The 2016 operating income was Euro 44.1 million (Euro 45.4 million in 2015). The major contribution (Euro 46 million) came from the management of IOR’s balance sheet (proprietary portfolio). The net result was Euro 36 million (Euro 16.1 million in 2015).
  • This result has been achieved thanks to a prudent approach in managing IOR’s investments in a year characterised by high volatility, global political uncertainty due to unexpected outcomes of major electoral events and low interest rates.
  • As of 31 December 2016, the Institute’s equity -- net of distributed profits -- amounted to Euro 636.6 million, corresponding to a 64.5% CET1 ratio, highlighting high solvency and low risk profile.


  • Other achievements
    In addition to achieving those economic and financial results, the Institute has also met the organizational objectives envisaged by the 2016 business plan, among which the most important were:
IOR’s governance, risks control and compliance in general
The IOR has consolidated and strengthened its internal governance and internal control system. The Institute has notably defined and implemented a Risk Appetite Framework, and has continued to adapt to the new AIF regulatory framework whilst seeking consistency with international best practices.

Disclosure and tax matters with the Republic of Italy
The Agreement between the Republic of Italy and the Holy See on tax matters entered into force on the 15th of October 2016. It opened the way to the inclusion of the Holy See in the tax “white list” of the Republic of Italy on the 23rd of March 2017.

Visit www.ior.va website for further information.
The Moynihan Letters are posted here.

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What is the glory of God?

"The glory of God is man alive; but the life of man is the vision of God." —St. Irenaeus of Lyons, in the territory of France, in his great work Against All Heresies, written c. 180 A.D.

ANNUAL REPORT 2016
Istituto per le Opere di Religione
Cortile Sisto V
00120 Vatican City State
Vatican City State


Registered under No 1 in the Register of Legal Persons held at “Governatorato” of Vatican City State Authorization n. 1 of 10/07/2015 issued by AIF, to carrying out on a professional basis financial activities at Vatican City State digital copy on site www.ior.va “Money must serve, not rule.” His Holiness Pope Francis, Evangelii Gaudium, 2013 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION OF CARDINALS’ MESSAGE 7 PRELATE’S MESSAGE 8 MANAGEMENT REPORT 9 CHAPTER 1. STRATEGIC INFORMATION 11 1. President of the Board of Superintendence’s Message 11 2. Mission, Customers and Services 13 3. Corporate Governance 14 4. IOR Organization Chart 21 5. Regulatory Framework and Tax Requirements 21 6. Proposal of Distribution of the Net Profit For the Year 26 CHAPTER 2. OPERATIONAL INFORMATION 27 1. 2016 Business Review 27 2. Forecast for 2017 28 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 31 Balance Sheet 33 Income Statement 34 Statement of Comprehensive Income 35 Statement of Changes in Equity 35 Cash Flow Statement 36 Explanatory Notes 38 Part 1. Accounting Policies 38 Part 2. Information on the Balance Sheet 61 Part 3. Information on Income Statement 82 Part 4. Information on Comprehensive Income 92 Part 5. Information on Risks and Hedging Policies 95 Part 6. Information Concerning Equity 119 Part 7. Related Party Transactions 123 REPORT OF THE REVISORI 125 REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL AUDITORS 131 The present Annual Report has been translated from the original one which is prepared in Italian IOR Annual report 2016 7 PRESIDENT OF THE COMMISSION OF CARDINALS’ MESSAGE The presentation of an annual report provides a convenient opportunity to do a double internal examination. The first one relates to the last year and the second one refers to the current year, or better, the future years. It seems to me that this rule can be applied to the presentation of the IOR annul report for the year 2016. In it, like every human work, one can find anxieties of great success, overcoming complex or inherited situations, To offer a service appropriate for everyone’s mission, personal contribution to a cause that is worth serving for professional reasons or for high ethical, religious or humanitarian inspiration. I think this can be behind the figures presented in the IOR 2016 annul report. But along with the best dispositions and personal efforts, there is also the stubborn realities of global economic and financial performance and the recurrent volatility phenomena that often complicate predictions and expectations. In this complex context, during the year 2016, the effort of all the members of the large family of IOR, ecclesiastical or laity servants, each in its place of responsibility at the various levels, took place. But they come together to serve a global cause with that ethical and exemplary sense that the Holy Father rightly claims from us all and from each of us. This is His first directive and first requirement, and not efficiency at any cost. In this line, as President of the Commission of Cardinals, I feel the duty to express the most heartfelt thanks to the Cardinals, the Prelate, the Board Members, the Directorate, the Revisori and the whole staff of our Institute. Allow me to remind all of us that the Holy Father, as he has clearly indicated on several occasions, requires competent and effective collaborators, but always guided by inalienable ethical principles, both inside and outside, as servants of the Church. It is our duty to continue to improve our services in the years to come. IOR Annual report 2016 Cardinal Santos Abril y Castelló President of the Commission of Cardinals Istituto per le Opere di Religione 8 PRELATE’S MESSAGE I wish to add my own to the authoritative voices of the Cardinal President of the Commission of Cardinals’, the President of the Institute and the Director General simply to express my thanks to all those who, through their commitment and work, have over the past year contributed to renewing the way the Institute operates. Thanks to them, one step at a time, the IOR has increasingly been becoming an entity that serves the Church straightforwardly and in a humble way, aware of its importance in connection with supporting the Holy See’s and Catholic religious organisations’ practical activities, and developing a conscience whereby the Institute is no longer viewed almost as a separate and independent entity but rather as one that takes as the reason for its very existence its subordination to projects targeted only to the real needs of Catholics works and not to making money for the sole purpose of making money. If thanks to management centred on Catholic social ethics there is money, that is positive, and if for whatever reason at times there is less than expected, never mind. The Lord will always lend His support to those who trust in Him: even “re oeconomica”. In these days of Easter, the people who work in our Institute ought to reflect upon the words Pietro said to the lame man: “Silver or gold I do not have, but what I have I give you: in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, get up and walk!” (Acts 4-6). So we must go forward bravely, without ever forgetting that there is One above us who guides events and this should give us confidence but also a great sense of responsibility. IOR Annual report 2016 Msgr. Battista Mario Salvatore Ricca Prelate Istituto per le Opere di Religione MANAGEMENT REPORT 11 CHAPTER 1 STRATEGIC INFORMATION 1. PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF SUPERINTENDENCE’S MESSAGE Sinceits appointment in July 2014, the Board of Superintendence has worked on the necessary transformation of the IOR to serve with Prudence the Holy Father in fulfilling his mission as Universal Pastor. This meant focusing on the nature and the quality of services offered to clients and to the Church in a complex financial environment, the establishment of a framework with stronger and clearer governance principles, strict compliance with applicable laws and regulations including anti-money laundering procedures, the improvement of internal controls and risk management, the execution of tax agreements with the United States of America and Italy, and the review of legal issues in coordination with the appropriate Vatican authorities. In 2016, the IOR has continued to make progress in rolling out the reform plan agreed upon by the Board, supported by the new Directorate and the work of all its employees. In doing so, the Board has given consideration to the words of the Holy Father regarding its particular responsibility and particularly “the responsibility of guiding the institute’s strategic development in accordance with its mission to serve, the Board should never lose sight of the ethical dimension of the choices made in providing strategic guidance, recognizing that ethics is first and foremost in governing the IOR, and may never be subordinated to profit, nor open to compromise”. Collaboration between the Board and the Directorate According to the Statute of the IOR, the Board has approved the business plan for 2016 which was the continuation of the 2015 plan with a core focus on ethics and customer satisfaction and has assisted the Directorate in its execution. It included the need to address the quality, reliability and sustainability of investment solutions offered as well as the technical support offered to IOR client base. In addition, the Board has worked with the directorate towards strengthening the overall organization including: 1. Ensuring compliance with law XVIII and Regulation No.1; 2. Strengthening the control functions with clearer governance principles; 3. Addressing human resource issues, such as increasing staff training, strengthening internal communication, and hiring appropriate resources; Jean-Baptiste de Franssu President of the Board of Superintendence Istituto per le Opere di Religione IOR Annual report 2016 12 4. Consolidation of the IT infrastructure; 5. Revising and strengthening the existing governance policy where necessary; 6. Continuation of the efforts of building new relationships with Italian banks, particularly in the context of the tax agreement with Italy; 7. Continuing to reduce administrative costs, including dependency on outside consultants; 8. Developing a Risk Appetite Framework (RAF) for the IOR and reinforcing the risk-sensitive approach and the Catholic investment criteria in the investment process as to strengthen the quality of its products; 9. Addressing legacy issues to which IOR is exposed in coordination with the Vatican regulator and judicial authorities. Significant efforts were also made to allow the IOR to be FATCA compliant and, in addition, in October, the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Italy and the Holy See on tax matters became effective. Both of these events represented a major milestone for the IOR and are a very important step in all the efforts made to bring full transparency in the operations of the IOR. The Board, after meeting with the Revisori and the external auditors, approved the Institute’s accounts and the management report for 2016, ensuring compliance with applicable requirements and new recommendations introduced by the AIF. The net result for 2016 is Euro 36 million. This results - whose details are provided in “Financial Statement” Section - reflects the continuous down trend of interest rate in Europe and the conservative approach that the Institute has adopted on managing its assets since 2014. As described in Management Report, Section 2, Part 1 - 2016 Business Review, this was achieved in a year of complex financial and political evolutions. In the meeting of the Board of Superintendence on 26 April 2017, attended by both the members of the Revisori and the external auditors, the financial statements for 2016 and the proposed distribution of profits to be made to the Holy See for 2016 were discussed and approved. As per the Statutes these informations were provided to the Commission of Cardinals to enable them to decide on the allocation of profits. The financial statements, prepared in accordance with IFRS, as adopted by the Circular issued by the AIF, have been audited by Deloitte & Touche S.p.A. 2017 and beyond All the efforts lead by the Board since 2014 will continue in 2017. Improving client experience at IOR, working towards full compliance with AIF regulations, continuing its commitment to AntiMoney laundering, working on the evolution of certain aspects of the IOR’s business model, developing IOR’ approach to faith investing, furthering the work on governance, and consolidating the role of the control functions will represent the Board’s main objectives. Acknowledgements I would like to thank all the Board members for their support, their contribution and their dedication. Many of them have devoted a considerable amount of their time to help guide the IOR through this year of transition and change. In 2016, the Board has continued to strive towards building a close working relationship with the Commission of Cardinals. I wish to extend my gratitude to the president and all the members for their availability and support. I also wish to express my appreciation for the work of Gian Franco Mammì, the Director General, the Prelate Mgr. Ricca and to all employees of the IOR. The work performed by the members of the Revisori and the external auditors have also been critical to the progress made by the IOR. IOR Annual report 2016 13 2. MISSION, CUSTOMERS AND SERVICES Mission of the Institute The Istituto per le Opere di Religione (the “Institute” or “IOR”) is an institution of the Holy See, founded on 27 June 1942 by Chirograph of His Holiness Pius XII. Its origins date back to the “Commissione ad Pias Causas” established by Pope Leo XIII in 1887. The mission of the IOR, established by its Statute, with reference to the Chirograph dated 1 March 1990 of His Holiness John Paul II, is “to provide for the custody and administration of goods transferred or entrusted to the Institute by natural or legal persons, designated for religious works or charity. The Institute can accept deposits of assets from entities or persons of the Holy See and of the Vatican City State”. The IOR strives to serve the global mission of the Catholic Church through the administration of the entrusted assets and providing payment services to the Holy See and related entities, religious orders, other Catholic institutions, clergy, employees of the Holy See and the accredited diplomatic bodies. The IOR is exclusively located on the sovereign territory of the Vatican City State and subject to the regulations and legislation applicable therein. The IOR is supervised and regulated by the “Autorità di Informazione Finanziaria” (AIF). Customers of the IOR Customers served by the Institute include: a) Institutional counterparties (Sovereign Institutions of the Holy See and Vatican City State and related entities, nunciatures and apostolic delegations, embassies and diplomats accredited to the Holy See); b) Non-institutional counterparties (Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Dioceses and other Vatican legal canonical or civil entities as legal persons; clerics and members of Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, employees and retirees of the Vatican as natural persons). Most of the IOR’s clients are active in missions or perform charitable works at institutions such as schools, hospitals or refugee camps. The Catholic Church, through its institutions involved in missionary activities and charitable works, is present throughout the world, even in countries with very basic infrastructure and underdeveloped banking and payment systems. In such cases, the IOR’s services are particularly valuable. For customers located in these areas, the IOR is a bedrock, affirming itself as a trusted institution able to provide on-site services otherwise lacking or absent. This is even more evident in those geographic areas with high political financial instability. Nature of the Institute’s services On behalf of its clients, the Institute carries out financial activities authorized by the AIF, and offers the following services: acceptance of deposits, asset management, certain custodial functions, international payment transfers through correspondent banks, and holding salary and pension accounts of employees of the Holy See and the Vatican City State. IOR Annual report 2016 14 The Institute protects its clients’ assets by primarily investing in financial instruments characterized as very low risk (e.g. government bonds, bonds issued by institutions and international organizations, as well as deposits in the interbank market). Credit activity is residual and strictly subject to constraints of the internal policies as established by the Board of Superintendence. The IOR does not issue, underwrite or place securities. Accounts opened at the IOR by authorized customers meet the requirements of the legislation on preventing and combating money-laundering and the financing of terrorism in force in the Vatican City State. Customers are provided with services in IOR offices located in the Vatican City State. The IOR has no other locations. 3. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE The IOR’s governance structure is defined in its current Statutes. It consists of five bodies: Commission of Cardinals, Prelate, Board of Superintendence, Directorate and the Revisori. The Commission of Cardinals oversees the Institute’s adherence to its Statute. It appoints and removes members of the Board of Superintendence. Furthermore: – It deliberates, after considering the financial statements and taking into account IOR’s own financing needs, the distribution of profits; – It proposes to the High Authority changes to the Statute; – It deliberates the compensation due to members of the Board of Superintendence; – It approves the appointment and removal of the Director General and of the Vice-Director made by the Board of Superintendence; – Resolution of any issues concerning the members of the Board of Superintendence and the Directorate. IOR Annual report 2016 Members of the Commission of Cardinals are appointed for a five year term, and can be reappointed. The current members are: Cardinal Josip Bozanic Archbishop of Zagabria Cardinal Santos Abril y Castello President Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of St Mary Major Cardinal Christoph Schönborn Archbishop of Vienna Cardinal Pietro Parolin Secretary of State Cardinal Thomas Christopher Collins Archbishop of Toronto Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialoue 15 IOR Annual report 2016 16 The Prelate is appointed by the Commission of Cardinals. The Prelate: – Oversees the activities of the Institute and may have access to its acts and documents; – Participates, as Secretary, in meetings of the Commission of Cardinals, drafting the minutes of the meeting; – Attends the meetings of the Board of Superintendence; – Submits his comments to the Commission of Cardinals, notifying the Board of Superintendence. Msgr. Battista Mario Salvatore Ricca was appointed as the Prelate of the Institute in June 2013. The Board of Superintendence is responsible for the administration and management of the Institute, as well as the oversight and supervision of its financial, economic and operational activities. In particular, the Board has the task of: – Formulating general policy guidelines and basic strategies for the activities of the Institute in line with its mission; – Defining the criteria for the implementation of annual programs and objectives of the Directorate, and approving its proposals; – Verifying the economic-financial activities of the Institute; – Monitoring compliance with established programs and objectives, with regard to investments and other activities; – Defining the most appropriate financial structure for the Institute, proposing the ways to improve it, and in general, the best means to increase its assets and activities in the context of correct adherence to economic-financial rules and in full compliance with the overall mission of the Institute; – Proposing to the Commission of Cardinals changes to the Statutes as long as they are unanimously approved by the Board of Superintendence; – Arranging for the issuance of the Institute’s Regulations, which are required to provide a detailed description of the powers and competencies of the Board and of the Directorate; – Delegating signing power in the name of the Institute to the Director General and, at their request, the Vice-Director, Managers and Officers, in the manner prescribed in the Regulations; – Approving the Financial Statements prepared by the Directorate. The members of the Board of Superintendence are nominated by the Commission of Cardinals and serve for a five year term, and can be reappointed. The Board consists of 7 members. IOR Annual report 2016 Jean-Baptiste de Franssu Mary Ann Glendon President Michael Hintze Mauricio Larrain Georg Freiherr von Boeselager (since December 2016) Scott C. Malpass (since December 2016) Javier Martin Romano (since December 2016) 17 IOR Annual report 2016 18 The Board of Superintendence fully performed its duties as defined by law and applicable procedures. It continued to advise and supervise the Directorate in rolling out the agreed reform plan and provided support for strategically important issues relating to the future development of the IOR. In December 2016, 3 new members were appointed to the Board following notably the resignations of Dr. Carlo Salvatori and Dr. Clemens Boersig. The Board wishes to express its gratitude to Carlo Salvatori and Clemens Boersig for all the help and counsel they provided to the IOR during their tenure. The 3 new members, formally appointed on December 15, 2016, are Georg Freiherr von Boeselager, Scott Malpass and Javier Marin Romano. In 2016, the Board of Superintendence convened for six meetings and dealt with the strategic and operating development of the IOR. All members participated in the meetings of the Board of Superintendence and the committees to which they belong to for the year under review. The Board continued its work on strengthening IOR standards of corporate governance.The meetings of the Board of Superintendence continued to represent an open exchange of information and ideas to find the appropriate resolutions to meet the needs of this unique institution. During these meetings, the Board benefitted from each member’s specific expertise in various subject matters, and the Board also held regular executive sessions to discuss specific topics in-depth. Once approved, the minutes of all Board meetings were shared with the Revisori, the Directorate, the Prelate and the Commission of Cardinals. During the year, the Board passed resolutions on a number of matters after careful analysis and consultation, and in close coordination with the Directorate and the Commission of Cardinals, for which the Board’s consent was mandatory. In 2015, the Board created two Board committees to strengthen the Governance of the Institute and the Board’s work, although such committees were not yet provided for by the Statute. An Audit & Risk and HR & Remuneration committees were first established. In 2016, the Board created a Past Abuses Committee to help and support the Board in its work of understanding and concluding the investigation of legacy issues to which IOR was exposed. The Committee completed its work at the end of January 2017, which included a thorough review of all cases and issued a detailed set of recommended legal actions. The results of this work has been filed with Vatican Regulator and Vatican Judicial Authorities. Minutes were drafted for each committee meeting and distributed to all Board members, along with a specific report presented by the respective presidents of those committees at each Board meeting and an annual report at year end. a) Members of the Human Resources and Remuneration Committee Mary Ann Glendon – Chair Carlo Salvatori (until May 2016) Jean-Baptiste de Franssu (ex officio) Mauricio Larrain In attendance: Mario Busso, President of Revisori b) Members of the Audit and Risk Committee Sir Michael Hintze – Chair Leslie Ferrar (non-board member) Clemens Boersig (until May 2016) Jean-Baptiste de Franssu (ex officio) Wiet Pot (non-board member) In attendance: Mario Busso, President of Revisori IOR Annual report 2016 19 c) Members of the Past Abuse Committee (June 2016 – January 2017) Jean-Baptiste de Franssu - Chair Sir Michael Hintze In attendance: Giovanni Barbara, Member of Revisori A focus was made in 2016 on the development of appropriate control functions, reinforcing their independence and ensuring that activities and controls were properly carried out. Today, they are comprised of: – Internal Audit – Risk management and Compliance In accordance with law no. XVIII/2013 (see art. 27 et seq.) and best international practices, the Internal Audit function reports to the Board with a dotted line to the Directorate. In terms of second-level controls, Risk management and Compliance department is directly responsible, among other things, for the AML/CFT (Anti Money Laundering/Combating the Financing of Terrorism) activities. The Revisori and the External Auditors have regularly and thoroughly carried out their activities during 2016, as expected. IOR Annual report 2016 The Directorate is responsible for all operational activities of the Institute and is accountable to the Board of Superintendence. The Directorate is appointed by the Board of Superintendence and approved by the Commission of Cardinals and consists of: The Revisori must: – Verify at least quarterly, the administrative and accounting review of the Institute’s books and records; – If requested by the Board of Superintendence, the Revisori may conduct internal audits or other inspections; – Review the financial statements including the report of the Directorate and supporting documents, provide written comments to the Board of Superintendence and present their observations to the attention of the Directorate and the Prelate. The Revisori consists of three members, appointed by the Board of Superintendence for a maximum period of three years. They can be reappointed. Current members are: – Mario M. Busso, President of the Revisori – Giovanni Barbara – Luca Del Pico Giulio Mattietti “Aggiunto al Direttore” with delegated functions Gian Franco Mammì Director General 20 IOR Annual report 2016 21 4. IOR ORGANIZATION CHART 5. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK AND TAX REQUIREMENTS Regulatory framework The Institute is subject to the laws and regulations of the Holy See and Vatican City State. The Vatican legal framework recognizes the Canon Law as the primary source of legislation and the primary criterion for its interpretation. Furthermore, there are six organic laws and other ordinary laws specific to the Vatican City State. For matters not covered by Vatican laws, laws and other regulations issued by the Italian Republic are observed as supplementary, subject to prior approval by the competent Vatican authority.They are adopted on the condition that they do not conflict with the doctrine of divine law, the general principles of Canon Law or the provisions of the Lateran Pact and subsequent Agreements, and provided that they are applicable to the state of affairs existing in Vatican City (See law No LXXI on the source of law, promulgated by Pope Benedict XVI on 1 October 2008). According to article 1.4 of Law no. LXXI on the sources of law, the legal framework must also conform to the general norms of international law, and to those arising from treaties and other agreements to which the Holy See is part of. The Institute is subject to Law no. XVIII of 8 October 2013 that covers norms of transparency, supervision, and financial intelligence and, as an entity that carries out financial activities on a professional basis in Vatican City State, it is also subject to Regulation No. 1 “Prudential Supervision of Entities carrying out financial activities on a professional basis” issued by AIF and enacted on 13 January 2015. The Regulation No. 1, establishing a clear system of authorization, stipulates the criteria for the organization and management of entities and mechanisms of internal control. IOR Annual report 2016 DIPARTIMENTO BILANCIO DIPARTIMENTO IT E SICUREZZA DIPARTIMENTO OPERATIONS DIPARTIMENTO FINANZA DIPARTIMENTO GESTIONI PATRIMONIALI DIPARTIMENTO RAPPORTI CON LA CLIENTELA COMMISSIONE CARDINALIZIA PRELATO RISK MANAGEMENT E COMPLIANCE SEGRETERIA DI PRESIDENZA LEGALE INTERNAL AUDIT RISK MANAGEMENT COMPLIANCE ED ANTIRICICLAGGIO CONSIGLIO DI SOVRINTENDENZA DIREZIONE SEGRETERIA DI DIREZIONE SEGRETERIA AMMINISTRATIVA ORGANIZZAZIONE E RISORSE UMANE DIPENDENZA FUNZIONALE DIPENDENZA GERARCHICA DIPENDENZA AMMINISTRATIVA On 15 December 2016, the AIF promulgated the “Circular relating to the preparation of the annual financial statements and the consolidated financial statements of entities carrying out financial activities on a professional basis”. These financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the aforementioned Circular. Tax requirements On 15 October 2016 the “Agreement between the Government of the Italian Republic and the Holy See in tax matters” became effective. The Agreement had also a two-fold impact on the Institute’s activities. In fact, the agreement provides for clients resident in Italy for tax purposes, on one hand, the regularization of the client positions in the prior years from 2010 to 2015 and, on the other hand, henceforth, that clients fulfill their tax debts through a Fiscal Representative chosen by the Institute. Concerning previous years it has been provided by a specific implementing act of the Secretary of State that the IOR assist its clients in compiling the instance with reference to the data regarding the investments held at the Institute and the calculation of taxes due, in addition to all the related administrative tasks. For the current and future period, the IOR must provide the calculations and withhold taxes to customers which will be paid to the Italian Government via an Italian tax representative. This required significant efforts to be made prior to the affectiveness of the agreement and in the following months. A specifictask force was established at the Institute to provide assistance to clients with the calculation of the amounts due and related administrative activities. Effective 2015, the IOR is subject also to the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), a United States federal law that requires U.S. persons, including individuals who live outside the United States, to report their financial accounts held outside of the United States to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS). FATCA also requires foreign financial institutions to report to the IRS the accounts of their U.S. clients. In this context, the Holy See has reached an Intergovernmental agreement (IGA) with the United States signed in June 2015. Under the terms of the IGA, the Holy See is a jurisdiction treated by the US Authorities as if the IGA was effective as of 30 November 2014, and the IOR has been assigned an identification code (GIIN) by the IRS. The IOR fully complies with the terms of the IGA. 6. PROPOSAL OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE NET PROFIT FOR THE YEAR For the net profit for the year ended 31 December 2016 amounting to EUR 36.0m, the Board of Superintendence intends to propose to the Commission of Cardinals, that the profits be distributed in full without making any provision to the Reserves, also considering the adequacy of capital (for further details see Part 6 - paragraph 6.2.2 “Capital adequacy”). 22 IOR Annual report 2016 CHAPTER 2 OPERATIONAL INFORMATION 1. 2016 BUSINESS REVIEW Macroeconomic environment Below is an overview of the macroeconomic environment that characterized 2016, with particular reference to those markets and events that had the strongest influence on the performance of the Institute’s portfolio. In 2016, financial market trends were characterized by the sharp increase in uncertainty and there were also several factors that increased risk aversion. In the first few weeks of the year, fears of a slowdown in advanced economies intensified, first and foremost in the US economy, in addition to fears of a contraction in the Chinese economy.The expectations of a new economic crisis that could have a domino effect to all the international markets therefore increased. Concerns over China also affected the market for raw materials and oil prices dropped to the lowest level of the year. This turbulent start was followed by a mild recovery that lasted until the major electoral appointments of the year, the British Brexit referendum, the US elections and the Italian constitutional referendum. Although the outcomes were not what financial operators had hoped for, the markets proved to be unexpectedly resilient. In the UK, the outcome of the referendum to decide on whether or not to remain in the European Union resulted in a sharp devaluation of the Pound and led to the adoption of expansionary monetary measures. In the United States, the “shock” of Trump’s victory was instead short-lived. His victory was viewed as a turning point attributed to announcements of implementation of fiscal stimulus measures, tax cuts and a corporate law reform, fuelling expectations of higher inflation. In Italy, while the victory of the “No” vote on the constitutional reform last December led to Prime Minister Renzi’s resignation, it did not result in the feared meltdown on Italian government bonds. At the macroeconomic level, 2016 was a year of modest growth for both Europe and the United States, with contrasting trends during the year. US economic growth was lower than expected in the first half. Indicators improved half way through the year, signalling the possibility of an increase in manufacturing activity towards the end of the year. However, 2016 ended with a slowdown in economic growth at 1.9% in the fourth quarter, although employment rates and incomes continued to grow. In the Eurozone, there were conflicting economic indicators. Quarterly GDP growth slowed during the April – June period, but the annual change remained sufficient to promote a grad- 23 IOR Annual report 2016 Gian Franco Mammì Director General Istituto per le Opere di Religione ual improvement in the labor market with a steady absorption of the unemployment rate, which still remains high. Inflation gradually increased towards the end of the year due to the rise in energy prices. Central Bank Monetary Policies continued to be expansionary in many countries over the year. In March, the ECB cut interest rates, introduced new monetary stimulus measures extending, at least until the end of 2017, the government bond purchase program in order to jump start economic growth. By contrast, in the wake of the economic improvement, the US Federal Reserve decided to raise interest rates by 25 basis points in December, widely expected by the market. The bond markets reacted positively for most of the year. The ECB’s measures, combined with low inflation, have lowered yields on government securities in all sectors, with the yield on German tenyear bonds becoming negative. Italian government securities also benefited from the ECB’s purchase program that helped keepTreasury bond yields low (10-yearTreasury bond yield was 1.25% in midyear, after having peaked at 1.7% in February) and limited the spread on German bond yields during turbulent market phases.Towards the end of the year, US, Japanese and EuropeanTreasury bond yields rose significantly, resulting in a significant reversal of the bond curve as a result of a change in the expectations of rising interest rates and expansionary fiscal policies aimed to counter weak economic growth. Bond rates remained very low but with the risk of an increase. During 2016 the stock market was severely affected by political events, with European stocks showing lower yield trends compared to the US given the concerns about a possible disruption in the European political scenario, also as a result of the UK referendum.The first nine months of 2016 were characterized by pronounced volatility and heightened risk aversion among investors in the main international markets, particularly, in the Eurozone and Asia. In June, the unexpected victory of the “Leave” campaign in the Brexit referendum brought about a sharp downward adjustment in share prices and a new increase in investors’ risk aversion (share prices in Italy experienced a sharp decline with a mid-year high of -25%, with twice that on the Italian banking sector index) before recovering towards the end of the year thanks to the improvement in the US economy, the continued flow of liquidity provided by monetary policies and the expectations of procyclical fiscal policies. Currencies were at the forefront of news reports in 2016, particularly in the UK following the outcome of the referendum: in fact, the Pound immediately fell 10% against the dollar to close the year at -16%. The Euro declined against the dollar, due to the increasing marked divergence in terms of monetary policy. Overall, 2016 was another very positive year for the US dollar, against which the Euro and the Swiss Franc, in addition to the Pound, lost value. Instead, the Japanese Yen held its ground. Lastly, with regards to raw materials, we experienced fluctuations in the prices of gold and oil. After almost two years of decrease in the prior of oil, the major commodity indices seems to have stabilized, going from 26 dollars per barrel in January 2016 to 50 dollars towards the end of year, in part to the agreement reached by OPEC. Gold, as the main safe haven asset in times of high risk aversion, peaked in the first half of 2016, having risen from its lowest price at 1061$/oz in December up to 1370$/oz in July. In the second half of the year, except for the short-lived surge that followed the election of Donald Trump, gold prices suffered to the point of reaching its lowest price in 10 months: 1,122.35$/oz, mainly because of the FED’s announcement of an increase in interest rates and the expectation of another three increases in 2017. Composition of the Client base At the end of 2016, the IOR had 14,960 clients (2015: 14,801), of which the vast majority, measured by assets entrusted to the Institute, were legal persons under Canon Law.The IOR’s customers have a common characteristic, which is that they are part of and serve the Catholic Church (seeclient definition in Chapter 1). 24 IOR Annual report 2016 IOR Annual report 2016 25 Measured by assets entrusted, the most important group of clients, was religious orders. They accounted for more than half of our client base in 2016 (54%), followed by Roman Curia departments, Holy See Offices and nunciatures (11%), entities of Canon Law (9%), cardinals, bishops and clergy (8%), episcopal conferences, dioceses and parishes (8%), with the remainder split between various others, such as Vatican employees and pensioners and Canon Law foundations. In addition to depositing funds with us, we manage our clients’ portfolios of assets on their behalf or act as custodians. As of 31 December 2016, the net value of assets held in managed portfolios was EUR 3.1bn (2015: EUR 3.2bn), the net value of assets held in non-managed portfolios was EUR 554.8m (2015: EUR 646.2m) and the value ofcustomer deposits was EUR 2.0bn (2015: EUR 1.9bn), resulting in EUR 5.7bn in total client assets (2015: EUR 5.8bn). (in thousand Euro) 2016 2015 In Balance Off Balance Total In Balance Off Balance Total Sheet Sheet Sheet Sheet Customer deposits (including Legates) 2,028,973 2,028,973 1,946,854 1,946,854 Assets under Custody 554,763 554,763 646,161 646,161 Assets under Management 410,563 * 2,700,366 3,110,929 424,815 2,760,870 3,185,685 Total 2,439,536 3,255,129 5,694,665 2,371,669 3,407,031 5,778,700 *Deposits of Assets Management are net of commissions collected in the first days of 2017. Assets under Custody mainly include client-owned securities held at the IOR for custodial purposes. The clients make all investment decisions and the IOR has no discretionary power to manage these assets, provided that such decisions are in accordance with the role and mission of the Institute. For the purpose of table above, securities, gold and precious metals under custody are stated at market values. Assets under Management consist mainly of client-owned securities held at the IOR for management purposes. Investment decisions are made by the IOR on the basis of portfolio management mandates signed with its clients. For the purpose of table above, securities under management are stated at market values. Income Statement In 2016, IOR’s Net profit was EUR 36.0m (2015: EUR 16.1m).Theincreasefrom 2015 was mainly due to improved results from Net Income for trading activities, to the remeasurement of a provision for tax remediation to foreign countries recognized in 2015 and to the decrease in Administrative expenses.The results were partially offset by the decrease in Interest Margin and Net fee and commission income. A brief overview of the main components of the Income Statement is presented below. The most significant source of revenues is the profit derived from Treasury activities on proprietary portfolios. The most important component was derived from bond yield which contributed for EUR 39.6 million (interests EUR 38,0 million plus trading results EUR 1.6 milion). Interest Margin amounting to EUR 36.7m decreased by 16% compared to EUR 43.6m in 2015. This was mainly affected by the decline in the yield on investments in securities and bank deposits and a decline in interest paid to customers, although the average amounts of capital invested re- IOR Annual report 2016 26 mained unchanged at EUR 2.9bn (2015: EUR 2.9bn); The average rate on customer deposits declined to 0.11% in 2016 from 0.22% in 2015, while the average yield on investments in securities and bank deposits declined to 1.35% in 2016 from 1.64% in 2015. Accordingly, the spread between the average rate received on assets and the average rate paid on liabilities decreased to 1.24% from 1.42%.This was mainly due to the expiration of securities in 2016 purchased in previous years with a nominal interest rate higher than those currently available on market. Net Income for trading activities recognised a net loss of EUR 9.0m compared to a net loss of EUR 15.4m in 2015. The result was mainly affected by the decrease in UCI unit investment compared to 2015, amounting to EUR -12.8 milion. The improvement in the results was mainly due to the positive performance of the bonds held in the proprietary portfolio in 2016, compared to 2015, to market trends during the year. More specifically, debt securities recognised a positive total net profit, including gains and losses from trading and gains and losses from valuation, amounting to EUR 1.6m in 2016 compared to a loss of EUR 17.1m in 2015. Equity securities recorded a profit of EUR 94,000 in 2016, versus a loss of EUR 307,000 in 2015, while FX activity contributed for EUR 2.0 million versus EUR 1.9 million in 2015. The value of UCI unit investment decreased by 2015 due to the write-down of an investment fund held in the portfolio in addition to other losses for a total of EUR 12.8 million in 2016 versus EUR 149.000 in 2015. Dividends increased by 7.8% to EUR 2.1m from EUR 2.0m in 2015. Net Fee and Commission income decreased 15.9% to EUR 12.8m in 2016 from EUR 15.2m in 2015. Fee and Commission Income decreased 10.6% to EUR 15.8m in 2016, from EUR 17.7m in 2015, while Fee and Commission Expense rose to EUR 3.0m in 2016 from EUR 2.5m in 2015 (+22.1%). The most important component of the Fee and Commission Income was commissions from Asset Management services, which decreased 8.7% to EUR 12.5m in 2016 from EUR 13.7m in 2015. This was mainly due to the shift of some customers to asset management lines, mainly composed by bond securities, with lower commissions than lines composed mainly by equity securities, that the same clients owned before. The increase in Fee and Commission Expense was mainly due to the fees paid for bank deposits (EUR 571,000 in 2016), paid for the first time in 2016, and to the increase in commission paid for custody and administration of securities, amounting to EUR 1.6m in 2016 from EUR 0.9m in 2015. This is partially offset by the decrease in commission paid for trading in financial instruments, which decreased to EUR 83,000 in 2016, from EUR 648,000 in 2015, due to the fact that, starting from 2016, clients directly pay commissions on securities transactions whereas previously, they were paid by the Institute and collected later. Administrative Expenses were EUR 19.1m in 2016 (2015: EUR 23.4m). This includes Staff Expenses of EUR 10.2m in 2016, in reduction with the prior year amount (2015: EUR 11.3m, or - 9.1%). As of December 31, 2016, the IOR had a total of 102 personnel (2015: 109). During the year, six employees retired and one resigned. Administrative expenses also include expenses for professional services, which decreased from EUR 7.6m in 2015 to EUR 4.0m in 2016.This was due to lower extraordinary costs incurred during the year from the completion of certain projects. IOR Annual report 2016 27 Other administrative expenses slightly increased by 7.2% to EUR 4.9m in 2016 from EUR 4.6m in 2015 due to higher costs incurred for maintenance. Net provisions to risks and charges in 2016 amounted to a profit of EUR 13.0m (2015: loss of EUR 16.5m) due to the reestimation of a tax provision for exposure in foreign countries recorded in 2015. Other Operating Income (Expense) recognised income of EUR 7,000 (2015: income of EUR 10.5m); the difference, compaired to the previous year, is mainly due to EUR 13.6m of extraordinary income recorded in 2015 related to the closing of an issue from prior years. Balance Sheet As of 31 December 2016, total assets on the IOR’s balance sheet was EUR 3.3bn (2015: EUR 3.2bn), with equity of EUR 672.6m (2015: EUR 670.3m). On the Liabilities side, Due to customers is the most significant line item, representing 92.4% of total liabilities. The balance slightly increased from the prior year, amounting to EUR 2.4bn (+3.3%). Customer deposits increased by EUR 75.5m, while asset management liquidity decreased by EUR 14.3m. Our clients expect a conservative approach in financial management by the IOR, with investments in liquid securities and high quality credit risk. Investments in the stock market and similar financial instruments are relatively limited and based on companies with strong fundamentals which generally tend to pay high dividends. No funding activities are carried out on the interbank market and IOR does not issue debt securities. As previously reported in Chapter 1, credit activity is residual and strictly subject to constraints of the internal policies as established by the Board of Superintendence. The asset side of the balance sheet mainly reflects bank deposits and securities, and less than 3% of total assets is held in UCI units and equities. Bank Deposits totaled EUR 643.2m at the end of 2016 (2015: EUR 644.1m). These mainly consisted of EUR 457.6m in deposits on demand (2015: EUR 265.4m), and EUR 108.5m in term deposits in the interbank lending market (2015: EUR 292.5m). The remaining part, EUR 77.1m (2015: EUR 60.7) concerned term deposits with APSA. The value of IOR Securities (debt securities, equity securities and investment funds) was EUR 2.5bn in 2016 (2015: EUR 2.3bn). Bonds, at EUR 2.4bn, were the most significant investments, representing 96.3% of the securities held as of 31 December 2016, while equities accounted for 2.4%, and investment funds for 1.3%. As previously explained, the volume of the securities in the portfolio slightly increased compared to 2015, while the portfolio composition remained unchanged. Profitability ratios The table below highlights the main economical, financial and productivity ratios: Profitability ratios (%) 2016 2015 ROE (Returns on Equity) 5.66% 2.47% ROA (Returns on Assets) 1.10% 0.50% Operating costs / Earnings margin 15.52% 66.05% Interest margin / Earnings margin 83.15% 96.03% Net fee and commission income / Earnings margin 29.05% 33.51% Interest margin / Total Assets 1.12% 1.36% Earnings margin / Total Assets 1.35% 1.42% The ratios ROE and ROA recorded an increase compared with the previous year due to the increase in Net profit. The profitability, explained from the ratio “interest margin / total assets”, amounted in 2016 to 1.12% against 1.36% recorded in 2015, due to the reduction of interest margin; the ratio “earnings margin / total assets” recorded almost a result in line with the previous year (1.35% in 2016, 1.42% in 2015). These two ratios showed that the Institute ability to create income slightly decreased, but the negative effects were balanced by the decrease of operating costs, showing good flexibility in reacting promptly to market changes. Other aspects The IOR does not issue securities, neither underwrite or place securities; it protects its client assets by primarily investing in financial instruments characterized as very low risk (e.g. government bonds, bonds issued by institutions and international organizations, as well as deposits in the interbank market). The IOR has no branches and provide services only at the IOR office located in the Vatican City State. The Institute owns 100% of the real estate company SGIR S.r.l., with registered office in Italy. The Institute has a long-term zero-interest loan to its subsidiary SGIR S.r.l., amounting to EUR 3.3m. During 2015, the Institute signed a loan agreement for the use of 4 real estate properties at no cost with its subsidiary SGRI S.r.l. During 2016, SGIR S.r.l. did not earn rental income on these properties. 2. FORECAST FOR 2017 In the first months of 2017, the Institute’s activity was in line with the Strategic Plan approved by the Board of Superintendence in January 2017.The main objective is to improve the quality of services offered to clients. The forecast for 2017 is a stable base of customer deposits, a result of a balance between the outflows due to the tax agreements signed between the Holy See and other countries and inflows due to the increased quality of services offered. By the end of 2018, the results of this work should be apparent. The effort, already undertaken in recent years, to comply with Holy See laws and regulations and international best practice will continue to be implemented.The same will apply with international tax matters. 28 IOR Annual report 2016 The issues of transparency and reputation will obviously be the core in this process of growth; many steps and activities have been taken from 2013 to make the Institute more transparent and aligned with international best practices. The IOR will continue to operate in accordance with his Mission that is to serve the Holy Father with prudence, in His mission as the Universal Pastor, through the provision of dedicated financial advisory, in complete compliance with Vatican and international laws in force and with what the Holy Father said “the main goal of the IOR cannot be to have the maximum possible gain, but should be goals that are compatible with the norms of morality, consistent efficiency and practices respecting the specificity of its nature and exemplarity in its mode of operation”. 29 IOR Annual report 2016 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IOR Annual report 2016 33 BALANCE SHEET IOR financial statements for 2016 are prepared in accordance with the Circular concerning the annual financial statements and the consolidated financial statements of entities carrying out financial activities on a professional basis, issued by Authority of Financial Information on 15 December 2016. The 2015 figures have been reclassified according to the provisions of the Circular above mentioned. (in Euro) ASSETS 2016 2015 10. Cash and cash equivalents 50,850,340 114,737,182 20. Financial assets held for trading 1,918,104,346 1,667,965,933 40. Financial assets available for sale 6,664,406 15,167,415 50. Financial assets held to maturity 558,955,610 614,818,290 60. Due from banks 643,229,012 644,089,443 70. Due from customers 29,152,785 86,233,851 100. Investment in subsidiaries 15,834,950 15,834,950 110. Tangible assets 3,095,565 2,981,724 120. Intangible assets 1,043,850 874,809 150. Other assets 41,958,806 41,556,606 Total Assets 3,268,889,670 3,204,260,203 LIABILITIES AND EQUITY 2016 2015 10. Due to banks 10,597,312 20. Due to customers 2,398,924,457 2,323,402,903 100. Legates 47,074,644 48,266,303 110. Other liabilities 18,709,825 20,086,868 120. Staff severance fund 6,992,585 6,788,489 130. Provision for risks and charges 124,588,179 124,838,475 (a) Provisions for pensions and similar obligations 121,088,179 108,338,475 (b) Other provisions 3,500,000 16,500,000 140. Valuation reserves (45,534,851) (27,981,254) 160. Reserves 382,134,172 382,134,172 (a) Unavailable reserves 100,000,000 100,000,000 (b) Available reserves 282,134,172 282,134,172 170. Capital 300,000,000 300,000,000 180. Net profit for the year 36,000,659 16,126,935 Total Liabilities and Equity 3,268,889,670 3,204,260,203 34 IOR Annual report 2016 INCOME STATEMENT (in Euro) INCOME STATEMENT 2016 2015 10. Interest and similar income 39,831,730 48,640,984 20. Interest and similar expense (3,168,836) (5,002,810) 30. Interest margin 36,662,894 43,638,174 40. Fee and commission income 15,836,850 17,709,979 50. Fee and commission expense (3,029,222) (2,481,584) 60. Net fee and commission income 12,807,628 15,228,394 70. Dividends and similar income 2,107,013 1,954,367 80. Net income for trading activities (8,982,924) (15,377,567) 100. Profit (loss) on disposal or repurchase of: 1,499,109 (b) Financial assets available for sale 1,499,109 120. Intermediation margin 44,093,720 45,443,368 130. Net losses/reversal on impairment: (1,331,864) 197,034 (a) Receivables (1,045,306) 352,909 (b) Financial assets available for sale (148,314) (d) Other financial operations (138,244) (155,875) 140. Net income from financial operations 42,761,856 45,640,402 150. Administrative expenses: (19,085,562) (23,427,846) (a) Staff expenses (10,244,959) (11,268,224) (b) Professional services expenses (3,961,573) (7,607,374) (c) Other administrative expenses (4,879,030) (4,552,248) 160. Net provisions to risks and charges 13,000,000 (16,500,000) 170. Net value adjustments to/recoveries on tangible assets (82,789) (63,868) 180. Net value adjustments to/recoveries on intangible assets (682,777) (511,793) 190. Other operating income (expense) 7,287 10,489,260 200. Operating costs (6,843,841) (30,014,247) 220. Net result of fair value valuation of tangible and intangible assets 82,644 500,780 250. Profit (loss) from current operations before taxes 36,000,659 16,126,935 270. Profit (loss) from current operations after taxes 36,000,659 16,126,935 290. Profit (loss) for the year 36,000,659 16,126,935 IOR Annual report 2016 35 STATEMENT OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (in Euro) 2016 2015 10. Profit (loss) for the year 36,000,659 16,126,935 Items that will not be reclassified to Income Statement 40. Defined benefit plans (13,275,014) 8,880,551 Items that are or may be reclassified to Income Statement 100. Financial assets available for sale (4,278,583) 4,777,470 130. Total other income items (17,553,597) 13,658,021 Comprehensive income (item 10 + item 130) 18,447,062 29,784,956 STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN EQUITY (in Euro) 2016 Allocation of Changes during the year previous year profit Total net equity Changes in Total net equity Reserves Dividends Changes Extra Comprehensive Net at 31.12.2015 opening at 01.01.2016 and other in reserves dividend income Equity at balances allocations distribution 2016 31.12.2016 Capital 300,000,000 300,000,000 300,000,000 Reserves (a) unavailable 100,000,000 100,000,000 100,000,000 (b) available 282,134,172 282,134,172 282,134,172 (c) other Valuation reserves (27,981,254) (27,981,254) (17,553,597) (45,534,851) Net profit (loss) for the year 16,126,935 16,126,935 (16,126,935) 36,000,659 36,000,659 Net Equity 670,279,853 670,279,853 (16,126,935) 18,447,061 672,599,980 (in Euro) 2015 Allocation of Changes during the year previous year profit Total net equity Changes in Total net equity Reserves Dividends Changes Extra Comprehensive Net at 31.12.2014 opening at 01.01.2015 and other in reserves dividend income Equity at balances allocations distribution 2015 31.12.2015 Capital 300,000,000 300,000,000 300,000,000 Reserves (a) unavailable 100,000,000 100,000,000 100,000,000 (b) available 267,300,717 267,300,717 14,833,455 282,134,172 (c) other Valuation reserves (41,639,275) (41,639,275) 13,658,021 (27,981,254) Net profit (loss) for the year 69,333,455 69,333,455 (14,833,455) (54,500,000) 16,126,935 16,126,935 Net Equity 694,994,898 694,994,898 (54,500,000) 29,784,954 670,279,853 36 IOR Annual report 2016 CASH FLOW STATEMENT (in Euro) 2016 2015 A. Operating activities 1. Management 42,833,712 48,037,261 Interest income 48,639,880 55,060,588 Interest expense (3,168,341) (7,659,915) Dividends and similar income 2,107,013 1,954,367 Net commissions 12,807,628 15,228,394 Realised profit (loss) from trading activities 2,024,715 (6,521,066) Staff expenses (10,566,173) (10,043,861) Other administrative expenses (8,840,603) (13,323,635) Other income (expense) (170,407) 13,342,389 2. Cash generated by/used in financial assets (206,618,819) 68,576,005 Financial assets held for trading (266,429,528) 41,765,424 Financial assets available for sale 5,575,219 Due from banks: on demand (192,197,353) 17,854,851 Due from banks: other receivables 192,249,112 (48,714,530) Due from customers 54,408,236 61,305,128 Other assets (224,505) (3,634,868) 3. Cash generated by/used in financial liabilities 62,216,802 13,182,507 Due to banks: on demand (10,591,428) 10,581,312 Due to banks: other payables Due from customers 75,515,176 12,469,195 Outstanding securities Legates (1,191,659) Financial liabilities held for trading Financial liabilities carried at fair value Other liabilities (1,515,287) (9,868,000) Cash generated by/used in operating activities (101,568,305) 129,795,773 B. Investing activities 1. Cash generated by: 53,250,000 64,986,522 Disposals of investments in subsidiaries Dividends received on investments in subsidiaries Disposal/reimbursement of financial assets held to maturity 53,250,000 64,986,522 Disposals of tangible assets Disposals of intangible assets 2. Cash used in: (965,804) (34,206,681) Purchases of investments in subsidiaries Purchases of financial assets held to maturity (33,412,000) Purchases of tangible assets (113,986) (240,681) Purchases of intangible assets (851,818) (554,000) Cash generated by/used in investing activities 52,284,196 30,779,841 C. Financing activities Issues/purchases of capital instrument Dividend distribution and other purposes (16,126,935) (54,500,000) Cash generated by/used in financing activities (16,126,935) (54,500,000) Cash generated/used during the year (65,411,044) 106,075,614 IOR Annual report 2016 37 Items 2016 2015 Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of the period 114,737,182 16,351,306 Cash generated/used during the year (65,411,044) 106,075,614 Cash and cash equivalents: forex effect 1,524,202 (7,689,738) Cash and cash equivalents at end of the period 50,850,340 114,737,182 EXPLANATORY NOTES PART 1. ACCOUNTING POLICIES 1.1 GENERAL INFORMATION 1.1.1 Statement of compliance with accounting standards The 2016 financial statement have been prepared in accordance with the Circular concerning the annual financial statements and the consolidated financial statements of entities carrying out financial activities on a professional basis, issued by Authority of Financial Information on 15 December 2016. As stated in the Circular, the financial statements must be prepared in accordance with the “International Accounting Standards – IAS”, the “International Financial Reporting Standards – IFRS” and related Interpretations (“Interpretations SIC / IFRIC”), as adopted by the Vatican in a special arrangement to the Monetary Convention between the European Union and the State of the Vatican City on 17 December 2009. The 2015 figures have been reclassified according to the provisions of the above mentioned Circular. 1.1.2 Accounting policies The financial statements consist of the Balance Sheet, the Income Statement, the Statement of Comprehensive Income, the Cash Flow Statement, the Statement of Changes in Equity and the Explanatory Notes. Disclosures under IFRS 7 “Financial Instruments, disclosures” about the nature and extent of risks have been included in Part V “Information on Risks and Hedging Policies”. The accounting principles and valuation methods applied in the preparation of these financial statements, detailed below, are consistent with those of the previous financial year, except for new standards, new interpretations, or amendments of standards and except for gold, silver, medals and precious coins evaluation criteria. According to AIF Circular and IAS 2, starting from 1 January 2016, gold, silver, medals and precious coins are measured at the lower of cost and net estimated recoverable amount, as explained in the Section 1.1.4 “Other Aspects”. The financial statements of the Institute are prepared in Euro, while the explanatory notes are expressed in thousand Euro. For the various items, the 2016 figures and corresponding values for the previous year are provided. Where necessary, the comparative figures have been adjusted to conform to changes in presentations in the current year. The financial statements are prepared in Italian. The financial statements of the IOR were prepared on a going concern basis in accordance with IAS 1 “Presentation of Financial Statements”. As of the date of the approval of the financial statements, there were no material uncertainties and therefore no significant doubt regarding the Institute’s ability to continue as a going concern in the foreseeable future. 38 IOR Annual report 2016 The financial statements fairly present the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of the Institute. The preparation of the financial statements requires the Directorate to make certain estimates and assumptions about the future where actual results may differ. Estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of certain assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses in the financial statements. In addition, changes in assumptions may have a significant impact on the financial statements in the year in which the assumptions change. The preparation of the financial statements also requires the Directorate to exercise judgements in applying the IOR’s accounting policies to estimate the carrying value of assets and liabilities not readily obtainable from other sources. The Directorate believes that the underlying assumptions are appropriate and that the IOR’s financial statements fairly present its financial positions and results. All estimates are based on historical experience and/or expectations with regard to future events that seem reasonable on the basis of information known at the time of the estimate. They are also reassessed on a regular basis and the effects of any variation are immediately reflected in the financial statements. Those areas involving a higher degree of judgement or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the financial statements, are disclosed in Section 1.1.4.1. “Critical accounting estimates and judgements”. The financial statements do not reflect a provision for taxes because there is no corporate income tax in Vatican City State. The Institute, given the immaterial value of its subsidiary, does not prepare consolidated financial statements in accordance with the provisions of the Conceptual Framework (QC6 – QC11) of IAS/IFRS, since the additional information coming from the consolidated financial statements would be of little relevance for the users of the financial statements. The Institute provides the additional information required by IFRS 12 “Disclosure of interests in other entities” in Part 5, Section 5.2.6 “Disclosure of unconsolidated structured entities for accounting purposes”. The financial statements of the Institute are prepared by the Directorate and approved by the Board of Superintendence, which will be submitted to the Commission of Cardinals. The Commission of Cardinals acknowledges the financial statements and decides on the distribution of profits, after taking into account the IOR’s own financing needs. 1.1.3 Subsequent events According the provisions of IAS 10, all events that took place subsequent to 31 December 2016 have been evaluated in the preparation of the 2016 Financial Statements. 1.1.4 Other aspects Starting from the financial year 2016 IOR applies the provisions arranged by the AIF Circular issued on 15 December 2016 about gold, silver, medals and precious coins. The Circular provides that gold, silver, medals and precious coins are normally carried at the lower of cost (see IAS 2, paragraphs 10-18) and net estimated recoverable amount (see IAS 2 paragraphs 6-7). 39 IOR Annual report 2016 According to IAS 8, the Institute considered the value as at 1 January 2015 (31 December 2014) as cost of the gold, silver and precious medals and coins, because was not feasible to make a measurement for the prior years. As of 31 December 2015, the value of gold was lower than the cost and this involved only a reclassification of the loss, already recorded in the previous financial year, from the item “Net income for trading activities” to the item “Other operating income (expense)”; no other economic impacts were recorded. The gold, silver, medals and precious coins held by the Institute are classified in the Balance Sheet, Item 150 Assets – “Other assets”. Gold is mainly deposited with the U.S. Federal Reserve, while medals and precious coins are kept in the IOR vaults. 1.1.4.1 Critical accounting estimates and judgements Critical judgements in applying the Institute accounting policies In the process of applying the accounting policies adopted by IOR, which are described in Section II, there may be circumstances that lead the Directorate to make judgements that have a significant impact on the amounts recognized in the financial statements. Such circumstances and related judgements may be part of the valuation process used for financial instruments. The Directorate makes critical judgements when deciding the asset category for classification, determining whether a market is active or not, whether the asset is liquid or illiquid, market inputs and parameters to be used, when they must be reviewed, and assessing circumstances where internal parameters are more reliable than market-based ones. Retirement benefits and other post-employment liabilities are estimated trough an actuarial valuation performed by an independent expert. Such an evaluation is based on critical judgements because estimates are made about the likelihood of future events and the actual results could differ from those estimates. Estimates that contain elements of uncertainty The process of applying the IOR’s accounting policies may require the use of key assumptions affecting the future, and/or other sources of estimation uncertainty as of the balance sheet date, with a significant risk of causing material adjustments to the carrying amount of assets and liabilities in the next financial year. Key assumptions and judgments made in the 2016 Financial Statements relate to the assessment of illiquid debt securities portfolio held for trading and external investment funds included within the portfolio held for trading, as disclosed in the section 1.4 “Fair value information”. Illiquid securities are not quoted in active markets and their fair value is not readily available in the market.These securities subject estimation uncertainties (Level 3 of fair value hierarchy) amounted to EUR 23.3m as of 31 December 2016 (2015: EUR 35.9m). These were exclusively comprised of externally managed investment funds. With reference to the liabilities related to commitments linked to externally managed investment funds, they are valued taking into account all available information at the date of preparation of these financial statements. This assessment is made on the basis of assumptions and the process of estimation in characterized by elements of uncertainty. By their nature, the estimates and assumptions used may vary from one period to another and, therefore, it can not be excluded that in subsequent periods the amounts of such liabilities may differ materially from those currently estimated as a result of new information and charges in the evaluations made. 40 IOR Annual report 2016 The IOR has also been working to review and confirm its tax position and that of its clients in countries where investment relationships exist. This review has identified probable contingencies that relate to prior years as a result of different interpretations regarding the legal nature of the Institute and the related applicable tax treatments. As of 31 December 2016, based on the reviews performed and supported by external legal advisors, the Institute has estimated a provision of EUR 3.5m, included in the Balance Sheet, item 130 “Provision for risks and charges” line b “Other provisions”. As this represents an estimate based on critical assumptions, actual results may differ from what is expected when the future event takes place. 1.1.5 Impact of New Accounting Pronouncements Accounting standards, amendments and interpretations IFRS effective 1 January 2016 The following accounting standards, amendments and interpretations IFRS were adopted for the first time by the IOR effective 1 January 2016: • Amendments to IAS 19 “Defined Benefit Plans: Employee Contributions” (published on 21 November 2013): the amendments relate to the accounting treatment for contributions made by employees or third parties to a defined benefit plan. The adoption of the amendments had no impact on the disclosures or the amounts recognized in the Institute’s financial statements. • Amendments to IFRS 11 “Accounting for acquisitions of interests in joint operations” (published on 6 May 2014): the amendments provide guidance on how to account for the acquisition of an interest in a joint operation whose activities constitute a business. The adoption of the amendments had no impact on the disclosures or the amounts recognized in the Institute’s financial statements. • Amendments to IAS 16 and to IAS 38 “Clarification of acceptable methods of depreciation and amortisation” (published on 12 May 2014):The amendments prohibit the use of revenue-based depreciation; the revenue generated by an activity that includes the use of the asset to be depreciated generally reflects factors other than just the consumption of economic benefits of the asset, which is a requirement for depreciation. The adoption of the amendments had no impact on the disclosures or the amounts recognized in the Institute’s financial statements. • Amendment to IAS 1 “Disclosure Initiative” (published on 18 December 2014): the purpose of the amendment is to provide clarification on disclosure items that may be perceived as presenting impediments to a clear and intelligible preparation of financial statements. The adoption of the amendments had no impact on the disclosures or the amounts recognized in the Institute’s financial statements. • Amendment to IAS 27 Equity Method in Separate Financial Statements (published on 12 August 2014): the amendment introduces the option to use the equity method in the separate financial statements of an entity for the valuation of investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associated companies.The adoption of the amendments had no impact on the disclosures or the amounts recognized in the Institute’s financial statements. • Amendments to IFRS 10, IFRS 12 e IAS 28 “Investment Entities: Applying the Consolidation Exception” (published on 18 December 2014): the amendments contain changes relating to issues that arise from the application of the exception granted to the consolidation of investment entities. The adoption of the amendments had no impact on the disclosures or the amounts recognized in the Institute’s financial statements. Finally, as part of the annual process for the improvement of the accounting standards, dated 12 December 2013 the IASB published the document “Annual Improvements to IFRSs: 2010-2012 Cycle” (including IFRS 2 Share Based Payments – Definition of vesting condition, IFRS 3 Business Com- 41 IOR Annual report 2016 bination – Accounting for contingent consideration, IFRS 8 Operating segments – Aggregation of operating segments e Reconciliation of total of the reportable segments’ assets to the entity’s assets, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement – Short-term receivables and payables) and in 25 September 2014 the document “Annual Improvements to IFRSs: 2012-2014 Cycle” (including IFRS 5 – Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations, IFRS 7 – Financial Instruments: Disclosure e IAS 19 – Employee Benefits) which partially integrate existing standards. The adoption of the annual improvements had no impact on the disclosures or the amounts recognized in the Institute’s financial statements. Accounting standards, amendments and interpretations IFRS and IFRIC approved by the European Union, not yet mandatorily applicable and not early adopted by the Institute at 31 December 2016 • Standard IFRS 15 – Revenue from Contracts with Customers (published on 28 May 2014 and amended on 12th April 2016) will replace the following standards and interpretations: IAS 18 – Revenue IAS 11 – Construction Contracts, IFRIC 13 – Customer Loyalty Programmes, IFRIC 15 – Agreements for the Construction of Real Estate, IFRIC 18 – Transfers of Assets from CustomersSIC 31 – Revenues-Barter Transactions Involving Advertising Services. The standard establishes a new revenue recognition model, which will apply to all contracts with customers except those that fall within the scope of other IAS / IFRS standards as leasing, the insurance contracts and financial instruments.This core principle is delivered in a five-step model framework: • Identify the contract(s) with a customer; • Identify the performance obligations in the contract; • Determine the transaction price; • Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; • Recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. The standard is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. Earlier application is permitted. However, the amendments to IFRS 15, Clarifications to IFRS 15 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers, published by the IASB on 12 April 2016, are not yet been endorsed by the European Union. At this stage, the Institute is evaluating the possible impacts of these changes on the financial statements. • Final version of IFRS 9 - Financial Instruments (published on 24 July 2014). The document recognized the results of IASB project to replace IAS 39: • Introducing new criteria for the classification and measurement of financial assets and liabilities; • With reference to the impairment model, the new standard requires that the estimate of credit losses is carried out on the basis of the expected losses model (and not on the incurred losses model used by IAS 39) using reasonable and supportable information about past events, current conditions and reasonable and supportable forecasts of future economic conditions; • Introducing a new hedge accounting model (types of transactions eligible for hedge accounting, changes in the method of accounting for forward contracts and options when included in a hedge relationship, changes in the effectiveness test). The new standard is effective for financial statements beginning on 1 January 2018 or later. The adoption of the IFRS 9 could have significant impacts on balance sheet income statement and disclosure. At the same time, for the time being the Institute is not able to provide a reasonable estimation of the above impacts without carrying out a thorough analysis. Accounting standards, IFRS amendments and interpretations not yet endorsed by the European Union. 42 IOR Annual report 2016 At the date of these financial statements, the relevant European Union bodies have not yet completed the approval process necessary for the adoption of amendments and the principles described below. • Standard IFRS 16 – Leases (published on 13 January 2016), will replace the following standards and interpretations: • IAS 17 – Leases, • IFRIC 4 Determining whether an Arrangement contains a Lease, • SIC-15 Operating Leases - Incentives, • SIC-27 Evaluating the Substance of Transactions Involving the Legal Form of a Lease. IFRS 16 establishes principles for the recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure of leases, with the objective of ensuring that lessees and lessors provide relevant information that faithfully represents those transactions.This new standard brings most leases on-balance sheet for lessees under a single model, eliminating the distinction between operating and finance leases. Lessor accounting however remains largely unchanged and the distinction between operating and finance leases is retained. The Institute do not expect a significant impact in the financial statements from the application of this standard. • Amendments to IAS 7 “Disclosure Initiative” (published on 29 January 2016).The document aims to provide some clarification to improve disclosures about financial liabilities. In particular, the amendments required to provide disclosures that enable users of financial statements to evaluate changes in liabilities arising from financing activities. The amendments are effective from 1 January 2017, earlier adoption is permitted. It is not required to present comparative information relating to prior years.The Institute do not expect a significant impact in the financial statements from the application of this amendment. • Document “Applying IFRS 9 Financial Instruments with IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts” (published on 12 September 2016). For entities whose predominant activity is issuing contracts within the scope of IFRS 4, the document is intended to clarify the concerns arising from the application of the new IFRS 9 to financial assets. The Institute do not expect a significant impact in the financial statements from the application of this document. • Document “Annual Improvements to IFRSs: 2014-2016 Cycle”, published on 8 December 2016, provides partial integration on existing standards, that include: • IFRS 1 First-Time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards - Deletion of shortterm exemptions for first-time adopters, • IAS 28 Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures – Measuring investees at fair value through profit or loss: an investment-by-investment choice or a consistent policy choice, • IFRS 12 Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities – Clarification of the scope of the Standard. The adoption of the above improvement would not affect significantly the Financial Statements. • Interpretation IFRIC 22 “Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration” (published on 8 December 2016). The interpretation clarifies the accounting for transactions that include the receipt or payment of advance consideration in a foreign currency. This document provides guidance on how an entity should determine the date of a transaction, and consequently, the exchange rate to use in circumstances in which consideration is received or paid in advance of the recognition of the related asset, expense or income. IFRIC 22 is effective from 1 January 2018. Earlier adoption is permitted. The Institute considers that the application of the above interpretation would not affect significantly the Financial Statements. • Amendments to IAS 40 “Transfers of Investment Property” (published on 8 December 2016). These amendments clarify the transfer of a property to, or from, investment property. In particular, an entity shall reclassify a property to, or from, investment property only when there 43 IOR Annual report 2016 is evidence that there has been a change in use of the property. Such a change must be attributed to a specific event; a change of management’s intentions for the use of a property by itself does not constitute evidence of a change in use. The amendments are effective from 1 January 2018. Earlier adoption is permitted. The Institute considers that the application of the above amendments would not affect significantly the Financial Statements. • Amendments to IFRS 10 e IAS 28 “Sales or Contribution of Assets between an Investor and its Associate or Joint Venture” (published on 11 September 2014). The amendments address a conflict between the requirements of IAS 28 ‘Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures’ and IFRS 10 ‘Consolidated Financial Statements’ and clarify that in a transaction involving an associate or joint venture the extent of gain or loss recognition depends on whether the assets sold or contributed constitute a business. At this stage, the IASB suspended the application of these amendments. 1.2 INFORMATION ON THE MAIN FINANCIAL STATEMENT ITEMS 1.2.1 Financial assets held for trading A financial asset is classified under this category if acquired principally for the purpose of trading. Purchases of financial assets held for trading are initially recognized at the transaction date, which is the date on which the IOR commits to purchasing the asset. On initial recognition, financial assets held for trading are recognized at fair value, which generally corresponds to the initial cash consideration paid, excluding direct transaction costs or revenues directly attributable to the instrument. Subsequent to initial recognition, the financial assets are measured at fair value, with any gains or losses arising from the change in fair value recognized in the Income Statement. Disposals are recognized on the trade date which is the date on which the Institute commits to dispose the assets. Gains and losses arising from disposal or redemption and unrealised gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value are recognized in the Income Statement, item 80 “Net trading result”. Interest income and expense arising from the financial assets held for trading are recognized in the Income Statement on an accrual basis and recognized “pro rata” based on the contractual interest rate. These are recognized in the Income Statement, item 10 “Interest and similar income”. Dividends on financial assets held for trading are recognized in the Income Statement, item 70 “Dividend income” when the entity’s right to receive payment is established. For the fair value measurement please refer to Section 1.4, Fair value information. All financial assets held for trading are derecognized when the rights to receive cash flows from the financial assets have expired or when the IOR has substantially transferred all risks and rewards of ownership. 1.2.2 Financial assets available for sale Financial Assets classified as Available for sale are those intended to be held for an indefinite period of time, and those that are subject to agreements that restrict the sale for a specified period. 44 IOR Annual report 2016 In addition, financial assets classified available for sale include non-derivative financial assets that are not classified as held for trading or loans and receivables or held to maturity investments. Financial assets available for sale are initially recognized on the trade date, which is the date on which the IOR commits to purchasing the asset. Financial assets available for sale are initially recognized at fair value plus any direct transaction costs. Financial assets available for sale are subsequently measured at fair value, and any changes in the fair value are recognized in Other Comprehensive Income and therefore directly in an equity reserve. Disposals are recognized on the trade date which is the date on which the Institute commits to dispose the assets. At the time that the financial assets are derecognized or impaired, accumulated gain or loss from changes in the fair value of financial assets available for sale previously recognized in Other Comprehensive Income are reclassified and recognized in the Income Statement. When the financial assets available for sale are sold, any unrealised gains or losses previously recognized in Other Comprehensive Income, are reclassified into the Income Statement, item 100 “Profit (loss) on disposal or repurchase” line b “Financial assets available for sale”. In case of impairment losses, gains or losses previously recognized in Other Comprehensive Income are transferred to the Income Statement item 130 “Net losses/reversal on impairment” line b “Financial assets available for sale”. At each balance sheet date, the IOR assesses whether there is objective evidence of impairment on financial asset available for sale. A significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the financial asset below its cost is considered as objective evidence of a reduction in value. If there is such evidence, the cumulative loss, measured as the difference between the acquisition cost and the current fair value, less previously recognized impairment loss, is transferred from equity and recognized in the Income Statement in item 130 “Net losses/reversal on impairment” line b. If, in a subsequent period, the amount of the impairment loss decreases, impairment losses recognized in the Income Statement on equity instruments are not reversed through the Income Statement, but through the Fair Value Reserves, a component of equity. For debt instruments classified as available for sale, if the fair value increases in a subsequent period and the increase can be objectively related to an event occurring after the impairment loss was recognized in profit or loss, the impairment loss is reversed through the Income Statement. The impairment policy adopted by IOR is that all equity securities classified as available for sale must be impaired when their market prices are below their carrying prices and the price decline is more than 20%, or when the decline to below the acquisition cost has persisted for more than 36 months. Interest income and expense arising from the financial assets available for sale are recognized in the Income Statement on an accrual basis and recognized “pro rata” based on the effective interest rate method. These are recognized in the Income Statement, item 10 “Interest and similar income”. Dividends on financial assets available for sale are recognized in the Income Statement, item 70 “Dividend income” when the entity’s right to receive payment is established. For the fair value measurement please refer to Section 1.4 “Fair value information”. All financial assets available for sale are derecognized when the rights to receive cash flows from the financial assets have expired or when the IOR has substantially transferred all risks and rewards of ownership. 45 IOR Annual report 2016 1.2.3 Financial assets held to maturity Financial assets held to maturity investments are quoted non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and with fixed maturities which the IOR has the intention and ability to hold to maturity. If the IOR sells financial assets held to maturity, the entire category must be reclassified as available for sale and for two subsequent years, no financial asset can be classified in this category. Financial assets held to maturity are initially recognized at the trade date, which is the date on which the IOR commits to purchasing the asset, and are recognized at fair value plus any direct transaction costs. The financial assets held to maturity are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method, and adjusted to take into account the effects of any impairment losses, when applicable the circumstances described below. Gains and losses on financial assets held to maturity are recognized in the Income Statement through the financial amortisation process (item 10 “Interest and similar income”) or when the assets are derecognized (item 100 “Profit (loss) on disposal or repurchase” line c “Financial assets held to maturity”) or when impairment losses are recognized in the Income Statement (item 130 “Net losses/reversal on impairment” line c “Financial assets held to maturity”). As of each balance sheet date, the IOR assesses whether there is objective evidence of impairment on financial asset held to maturity. A financial asset is impaired and impairment losses are recognized when one or more loss events occurred after the initial recognition of the asset and that loss event has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset. The amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate. The carrying amount of the asset is directly reduced and the extent of the loss is recognized in the Income Statement item 130 “Net losses/reversal on impairment” line c “Financial assets held to maturity”. Interest income and expense arising from the financial assets held to maturity are recognized in the Income Statement on an accrual basis and recognized “pro rata” based on the effective interest rate method. These are recognized in the Income Statement, item 10 “Interest and similar income”. The effective interest method is a method calculating amortized cost of an asset or a financial liability and of allocating interest. The effective interest rate is the rate that makes the present value of expected cash flows until maturity of the financial instrument (or, if more reliable for a shorter period) exactly equal to the current book value. The calculation not only includes all fees and premiums or discounts received or paid to the counterparty, which are an integral part of the effective interest rate, but also the transaction costs and all other premiums or discounts. All financial assets held to maturity are derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the financial assets have expired or when the IOR has substantially transferred all risks and rewards of ownership. 1.2.4 Credits The item includes loans to customers and banks, with fixed or determinable payments, provided directly, not quoted in an active market and not initially classified as financial assets held for trading, available for sale or at fair value. 46 IOR Annual report 2016 The item includes: 1. authorized financing agreements where the Institute provides money directly to the customers without the intention of subsequent re-negotiation; 2. Loans and Receivables debt securities offered through private placements, which the Institute does not designate as financial assets at fair value through profit or loss or available for sale. These financial assets are subject to the risk of deterioration of the creditworthiness of the counterparty. Financing agreements are recognized when the amount is advanced to the borrower. They are initially recognized at fair value, which is the value of the loan, plus any direct transaction costs. Financing agreements are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. Securities are initially recognized on the trade date, which is the date on which IOR commits to purchasing the asset at fair value plus any direct transaction costs or income. Securities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method, and are subject to impaired test and impairment losses are recognized when one or more loss events occurred after the initial recognition of the asset and that loss event has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset. When a loan becomes uncollectible, it is written off against the related provision for loan impairment. Such exposures are written off after all the necessary procedures have been performed and the extent of the loss has been determined. Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off are recognized in the Income Statement item 130 “Net losses/reversal on impairment” line a “Receivables”. Interest income and expense arising from loans and advances to customers are recognized in the Income Statement on an accrual basis and recognized “pro rata” using the effective interest rate method. These are recognized in the Income Statement, item 10 “Interest and similar income”. At each balance sheet date, the IOR assesses whether there is objective evidence of impairment. A financial asset is impaired and impairment losses are recognized when one or more loss events occurred after the initial recognition of the asset and that loss event has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset. The amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate. The carrying amount of the asset is reduced through the use of a provision account and the extent of the loss is recognized in the Income Statement item 130 “Net losses/reversal on impairment” line a “Receivables”. Loans which are not individually impaired are subject to valuation on a portfolio basis based on historical data.The loss is recognized in the Income Statement item 130 “Net losses/reversal on impairment” line a “Receivables”. If, in a subsequent period, the impairment loss decreases and the decrease can be objectively attributed to an event occurring after the impairment was recognized (such as an improvement in the debtor’s credit rating), the previously recognized impairment loss is reversed by adjusting the allowance account.The amount of the reversal is recognized in the Income Statement, Statement item 130 “Net losses/reversal on impairment” line a “Receivables”. In any case, the reversal can not exceed the cost that the financial instrument prior to the recognition of any impairment loss. 47 IOR Annual report 2016 Credits are derecognized when the rights to receive cash flows from the financial assets have expired or when the IOR has substantially transferred all risks and rewards of ownership. Regarding loans to customers, at the end of each month, the Advances Department analyses all exposures and submits to the Directorate a proposal on how to manage aged loans at risk for noncollection. Particularly, when the balance is deemed to be collectible within a short period, an impairment loss is not realized, but the trend is monitored; when the balance is deemed to be collectible in a mid/long term period, an impairment loss is recognized; when the positions are past due and uncollectible, the department proposes a write-off the amount as a loss on loans to the Directorate. It is to be mentioned that the Institute is not authorized by the Autorità di Informazione Finanziaria to carry out the activity of “lending” (cfr. art. l (l) (b) of the Law n.XVIII and art. 3 (24) (b) of the Regulation No. l), as credit activities on its own. However, it is authorized to make “advances” that is to disburse funds to its clients and to a limited extent following guarantee of future income (such as, for example, in the case of the advance of salary or pension paid by the Holy See or the Governatorato of Vatican City) or guaranteed by financial assets of the same amount deposited by the clients at the Institute. 1.2.5 Derivative financial instruments and hedge accounting Derivatives are initially recognized at fair value on the date in which a derivative contract is entered into. The initial fair value generally corresponds to the initial cash consideration, and subsequently remeasured at fair value with changes recognized through profit or loss. The fair value of derivatives quoted in active markets is based on current bid prices. If the market for a financial derivative is not active, the IOR obtains fair value from third parties or establishes fair value by using valuation models that are primarily based on objective financial inputs, as well as considering prices utilised in recent transactions and prices of similar financial instruments. All derivatives are recognized as assets when the fair value is positive and as liabilities when fair value is negative. Derivative financial instruments may include embedded derivatives in a hybrid financial instrument. IAS 39 requires that an embedded derivative be separated from its host contract and accounted for as a derivative when: 1. The economic risks and characteristics of the embedded derivative are not closely related to those of the host contract; 2. A separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative would meet the definition of a derivative; 3. The hybrid (combined) instrument is not measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized through Income Statement. The Institute does not enter into Fair value hedges, Cash flow hedges or Net investment hedges for foreign currency transactions/positions. As of 31 December 2016 and 2015, the Institute did not hold derivatives. 48 IOR Annual report 2016 1.2.6 Investment in subsidiaries Investment in subsidiariesconsists of the stake in the wholly-owned real estatecompany SGIR, based in Rome, Via della Conciliazione. The principal assets of this company are real estate properties. Investment in subsidiaries is carried at cost, less impairment. Real estate owned by the subsidiary is depreciated on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life which management considers as between 30 and 50 years. Land is not depreciated. 1.2.7 Tangible assets 1.2.7.1 Tangible assets for investment - Investment properties Investment properties are properties directly owned by the IOR. These are buildings not owneroccupied, but inherited and held to generate rental income, capital appreciation or both. Investment properties are initially measured at cost (which is zero in case of inheritances) and subsequently at fair value with any change recognized in the Income Statement, item 220 “Net result of fair value valuation of tangible and intangible assets”. Improvements to buildings increase their carrying amounts. 1.2.7.2 Tangible assets for business activities - Equipment, furniture and vehicles All equipment, furniture and vehicles are stated at historical cost, minus accumulated depreciation. Historical cost is generally based on the fair value of the sum paid in exchange for assets and includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items. Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or are recognized as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that the IOR will recognise future economic benefits associated with the item. All repairs and maintenance costs are charged to the Income Statement in the year they are incurred. Equipment, furniture and vehicles are amortised on a straight-line basis over their expected useful lives (four years). The asset’s residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, on each balance sheet date. These assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An asset’s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset’s carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount.The recoverable amount is the higher of the asset’s fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. The result of the impairment test and the depreciations are recognized in the Income Statement item 170 “Net value adjustments to/recoveries on tangible assets”. Gains and losses on disposals are determined as the difference between the sale proceeds and the carrying amount of the assets.They are recognized in the Income Statement, under item 190 “Other operating income (expense)”. 49 IOR Annual report 2016 1.2.8 Intangible assets Intangible assets correspond to computer software licenses and to expenses related to their implementation. Acquired computer software licenses are recognized at acquisition costs, including costs incurred to bring the specific software into use. These costs are amortised on a straight-line basis over their expected useful lives (four years). These assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An asset’s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset’s carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of the asset’s fair value less costs to sell it and its value in use. The result of the impairment test and the depreciations are recognized in the Income Statement item 180 “Net value adjustments to/recoveries on intangible assets”. Costs associated with maintenance of computer software programmes are recognized as an expense in the Income Statement when they are incurred. 1.2.9 Due to banks and to customers Due to banks comprises interim current accounts overdrafts, as the Institute does not carry out funding activites on the interbank market. Due to customers are composed by financial instruments (different from trading liabilities) that assumed the typical forms of funds, realised by IOR with customers. The mentioned financial liabilities are recorded in the financial statements on the settlement date. They are initially recognized at the current value, which normally corresponds to the amount collected.The initial recognition value includes possible expenses and incomes from anticipated transaction and directly attributable to each liability; not included in the initial carrying amount are all charges which are paid back by the credit counterparty or that are attributable to internal administrative expenses. After the initial recognition, due to banks and to customers are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest rate method.The short-term liabilities remain recorded at the amount received. Interest expense related to due to banks and to customers are recognized in the income statement, item 20 “Interest and similar expense”. Due to banks and to customers are derecognized when they expired or extinguished. 1.2.10 Legates According to the Canon Law (Can. 1303), the term “Legati – non autonomous pious foundation” comprises: “temporal goods given in any way to a public juridical person and carrying with them a long-term obligation, such a period to be determined by particular law. The obligation is for the juridical person, from the annual income, to celebrate Masses, or to perform other determined ecclesiastical functions, or in some other way to fulfil the purposes mentioned in Can. 114, par. 2”. Based on such definition, this is understood to be an arrangement whereby capital is donated or willed to the IOR for religious or charitable purposes, based on the understanding that the transferred capital is invested on a long term basis and the annual income earned from the investment 50 IOR Annual report 2016 is devoted to the fulfilment of the purpose prescribed by the donor. Under these provisions, the IOR will administer the capital in accordance with the purpose prescribed by the donor (e.g., for Holy Mass Intention or scholarships). Legates are recognised in the financial statement on the settlement date. Legates are initially recognised at the current value, which normally corresponds to the amount received. The initial recognition value includes also expenses and incomes for anticipated transaction and directly attributable to each liability; not included in the initial carrying value are all charges which are paid back by the credit counterparty or that are attributable to internal administrative expenses. The interest expense related to the Legates are recognized in the income statement, item 20 “Interest and similar expense”. Legates are derecognised when they expired or extinguished. 1.2.11 Staff severance fund Staff severance fund is a post-employment benefit that correspond to indemnities paid to personnel when they leave the IOR. The amount due is based on years of service and salary paid in the last year of employment.These benefits are financed by contributions from employees and the IOR. The liability is measured with utilizing certain actuarial assumptions, as the present value of the estimated future cash outflows according to the projected unit credit method required by IAS 19. Remeasurements arising from the defined benefit plan comprise actuarial gains and losses, recognized in Other Comprehensive Income. All other expenses related to the defined benefit plan in the Income Statement, item 150 “Administrative Expenses”, line a “Staff expenses”. 1.2.12 Provisions for risks and charges - Pension fund and similar obligations For the pensions of its employees, the IOR operates a defined benefit plan, which is financed by contributions from employees and the IOR. The IOR’s net liabilities related to the defined benefit plan for pensions is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees will earn in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value. The IOR determines the interest expense on the defined benefit liability for the year by applying the discount rate used to measure the same liability at the beginning of the year. The discount rate is the yield on the reporting date from high quality corporate bonds that have maturity dates approximating the terms of the IOR’s liabilities and that are denominated in the currency in which the benefits are expected to be paid. The calculation is performed annually by a qualified actuary, who assesses the fairness of the liability, using the projected unit credit method. Remeasurements arising from the defined benefit plan comprise actuarial gains and losses. The IOR recognizes them immediately in Other Comprehensive Income and all other expenses related to the defined benefit plan in the Income Statement, item 150 “Administrative expenses”, line a “Staff expenses”. When the benefits of the plan are changed, the portion of the changed benefit related to past service by employees is recognized immediately in the Income Statement. On 1 January 2005, all IOR personnel also joined the general Vatican City State pension plan.This system is financed by contributions made by the Institute and employees. Contributions to the Vat- 51 IOR Annual report 2016 ican plan made by the IOR are recognized in the Income Statement, item 150 “Administrative expenses”, line a “Staff expenses” when they occur. Consequently, the IOR’s defined benefit plan for pensions covers the entire amount to be paid by the Institute to employees for their service up to 31 December 2004. For the employees’ services from 1 January 2005, the obligation is limited to the part not covered by the Vatican City State Pension Plan taking into account the difference in the retirement age of the two pension systems. 1.2.13 Foreign Currency Transactions Functional and presentation currency The functional currency is the currency in which the items included in the financial statements must be measured. According to IAS 21 “The effects of changes in foreign exchange rates” the functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. This is the currency that determines the pricing of transactions, but it is not necessarily the currency in which transactions are denominated. The reporting currency is the currency in which the financial statements are prepared. IAS 21 allows an entity to prepare its financial statements in any currency. The IOR’s functional and presentational currency is the Euro, which is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Institute operates. Transactions and balances Foreign currency transactions, if they impact profit or loss accounts, are converted into the functional currency using the exchange rates applicable at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are converted into the functional currency using the spot exchange rate at the reporting date (closing rate). Non-monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the rate at the date their amount (cost or fair value) was determined. Non-monetary items carried at cost are converted at the exchange rate at the date of initial recognition in the financial statements. Non-monetary items carried at fair value are translated using the rate at the date of the determination of their fair value. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of foreign currency transactions and from the conversion at year-end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognized in the Income Statement, item 80 “Net income for trading activities”. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the conversion at year-end exchange rates of nonmonetary assets and liabilities are: • recognized in the Income Statement as part of the fair value gain or loss if the non-monetary assets and liabilities are carried at fair value through profit and loss; • included in the fair value reserves in the equity if the non-monetary assets and liabilities are car- 52 ried at fair value in the equity. IOR Annual report 2016 1.2.14 Offsetting financial instruments Financial assets and liabilities are offset and the net amount is reported on the Balance Sheet only when there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognized amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis. Otherwise, the financial assets and liabilities are separately reported on the balance sheet. 1.3 TRANSFERS BETWEEN PORTFOLIOS The amendments to IAS 39 and to IFRS 7 “Reclassification of financial assets” allow for the reclassification of certain financial assets after their initial recognition, out of the held for trading (HFT) and available for sale (AFS) portfolios. In particular, those HFT or AFS financial assets that would have met the definition specified by international accounting standards for the loan portfolio (if such assets were not classified as HFT or AFS respectively on initial recognition) may be reclassified if the entity intends, and is able, to hold them for the foreseeable future or until maturity. The Institute did not have any transfers between portfolios in 2016 and in previous years. 1.4 FAIR VALUE INFORMATION 1.4.1 Qualitative fair value information For the measurement of fair value, the amendments to IFRS 7 and subsequent changes introduced by IFRS 13 defines a fair value hierarchy based on level of observable inputs, valuation techniques adopted and parameters used for measurement. The financial assets are classified according to the following hierarchy that consists of three levels. Level 1 In Level 1, the fair value is measured using the quoted prices in active markets for the financial assets and liabilities to be evaluated. A financial instrument is considered quoted in an active market when its price is: • readily and regularly available on stock exchanges, from information providers or intermediaries; • significant, meaning that it represents effective market transactions regularly occurring in normal transactions. To be considered Level 1, the price should be not be adjusted through an adjustment factors (valuation adjustment). If it is adjusted, the measurement at fair value of financial instrument will be Level 2 or Level 3. Level 2 A financial instrument is included in Level 2 when the inputs utilised to measure fair value are directly or indirectly observable in the market. The parameters of Level 2 are as follows: • prices quoted on active markets for similar assets or liabilities; • price quoted on non-active markets for similar or identical assets and liabilities; 53 IOR Annual report 2016 • market observable inputs other than the quoted price for the asset or liability (interest rates, yield curve, credit spreads, volatility); • parameters that derive mainly (or are corroborated by correlation or other techniques) from observable market data (market-corroborated inputs). An input is observable when it reflects the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability based on market data provided by sources independent of the reporting entity. Valuation techniques used to determine fair value that should be used when the market price is not available or is not significant, must meet three conditions. They must: 1. be methodologically consolidated and widely accepted; 2. utilise market inputs disclosed above; 3. be periodically reviewed. Valuation techniques used for fair value measurement should be periodically assessed using inputs observable in the markets to ensure that outputs reflect actual data and comparative market prices and to identify any weaknesses. If the fair value measurement utilise observable inputs that require a significant adjustment based on unobservable inputs, the financial instrument should be considered in Level 3. Level 3 Included in Level 3 are financial instruments valued using inputs unobservable market data (unobservable inputs). To be included in Level 3, at least one of the inputs must be unobservable on the market. Level 3 financial instruments are valued using inputs are not derived from independent sources but on the reporting entity’s own assumptions based on assumptions that market participants would use, based on observable inputs. IFRS 13 specifies a hierarchy of fair value measurements based on whether the inputs are observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability based on market data obtained from sources independent of the reporting entity. The market price is the most observable and objective input (Level 1). Where no active markets exists or where quoted prices are not available, the entity determines the fair values by using valuation techniques. Valuation techniques can utilise inputs observable on the market (Level 2) or non-observable inputs (Level 3). The above mentioned valuation approaches should be applied in a hierarchical order. When there is availability of quoted market prices in active markets, an entity must measure fair value using Level 1 inputs. Furthermore, the valuation techniques used should prioritise the utilization of inputs observable on the market and should rely as little as possible on the reporting entity’s own data, internal valuations or unobservable inputs. Fair value level 2 and 3: valuation techniques and input used The criteria used by the IOR to determine the fair value of financial instruments are as follows. The fair values of investments held by the IOR quoted in active markets are usually based on current bid prices. A financial instrument is considered as quoted in active markets if the prices are readily and regu- 54 IOR Annual report 2016 larly available in an exchange or regulatory agency and those prices represent actual market transactions that occur regularly on an arm’s length basis. In the absence of an active market, or in the event the market at the time of the valuation is not considered active, for example, in case of illiquid markets, the valuation techniques adopted by IOR are based on the use of recent arm’s length transactions in the market, even on a non-active market, relative to identical financial instrument or financial instruments with similar characteristics. The valuation techniques include the discounted cash flow analysis and other valuation techniques commonly used by market participants. If recent transactions of the same or similar instruments are not available, the IOR uses valuation techniques based on market parameters or other parameters. When using valuation techniques, the IOR tries to use observable market data, reducing its reliance on internal data. Valuation techniques are periodically reviewed for applicability, assessing the quantity and the quality of information available as of the balance sheet date, in order to correctly reflect any changes in the market. For the same reason, adjustments to market inputs, utilised in a certain model, can change from time to time. Consequently IOR models ensure that outputs reflect actual data and comparative market prices. In Level 1, the IOR has classified all financial instruments quoted in active markets. Under Level 2, the IOR has classified all illiquid financial instruments, include those that are structured or unstructured, as well as listed external investment funds that are not immediately payable and unlisted investment funds with investments in listed instruments. The basis for the valuation of illiquid securities follow prices provided by the securities issuer. These prices are internally verified and tested utilising internal models and observable market parameters and, in case of discrepancies, adjusted considering the result of the above-mentioned analysis. They are also adjusted on the basis of valuations from independent sources. Under Level 3, the IOR has classified equity securities that are not quoted or other financial instruments for which fair values are determined using a model based on internal parameters. To the extent that this is practical, the models use only observable data. However, areas such as default rates, volatilities and correlations require the Directorate to make estimates. In this category the Institute has also classified other assets: • for which the IOR did not receive independent valuations; • for which the IOR does not have access to financial information; • for which, despite having financial information, the Institute believes that the valuation of underlying assets, due to the nature of the investment, is based on valuation parameters that are not immediately observable in the market; • for which the IOR has received independent expert valuations (i.e. for investment properties). The NAV of funds, defined as the difference between the current value of the assets and liabilities of the fund, a Fair Value Adjustment was calculated to include other risk factors. The Fair Value Adjustment (FVA) is defined as the amount to be added to the mid-price observed in markets, rather than the price determined by the model, with the aim of obtaining the fair value of the position. The FVA includes the uncertainty inherent in the valuation of a financial instrument with the goal of reducing the risk of incorrect valuations in the financial statements and en- 55 IOR Annual report 2016 suring that fair value reflects the realised price of a market transaction that is actually possible; and incorporating possible future costs. The Institute adjusts the value of financial instruments measured at fair value on a recurring basis classified as Level 2 and Level 3 based on credit risk (Credit Valuation Adjustment), liquidity risk related to the disinvestment, close-out costs and available informations about the outstanding assets. With regard to the Credit Valuation Adjustment, the Institute considered the impact of fair value on credit risk of the counterparty and the country using the following inputs: • PD (Probability of Default) linked to the rating of counterparty (if not available the PD corresponding to an investment with an S&P rating of BBB was used); • LGD (Loss Given Default) based on the estimated level of expected recovery in case of counterparty default and defined through market benchmark and based on experience.The percentage used was 60%. Regarding the close-out cost, an adjustment is applied on the NAV of external investment funds if close-out penalties are stipulated. Sensitivity Analysis For fair value measurements where significant unobservable inputs are used (level 3), a sensitivity analysis is performed in order to obtain the range of reasonable alternative valuations. The Institute takes into account that the impact of unobservable inputs on the measurement of fair value of Level 3 depends on the correlation between the different inputs used in the valuation process. A sensitivity analysis was performed using a stress test on the PD and LGD by +/-5% and it did not have a significant impact to the value of the investments classified as Level 3. Fair value hierarchy (transfers between portfolios) With reference to financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis, transfers between the fair value hierarchy were based on the following guidelines. For debt securities, transfers from level 3 to level 2 occurs when the relevant parameters used as inputs to the valuation technique are observable on the market. Transfers from level 3 to level 1 occurs when the presence of an active market has been verified, as defined by IFRS 13.Transfers from level 2 to level 3 occurs when some of the relevant parameters for determination of fair value are no longer directly observable on the market. For equity instruments classified as available- for- sale, transfers between the fair value hierarchy occurs: • during the period, when market observable inputs become available (e.g. prices are determined in comparable transactions on the same instrument between independent and knowledgeable counterparties), the Institute proceeds with the reclassification from level 3 to level 2; • when inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the market used as the basis for the valuation no longer exist, or no longer updated (e.g. No recent comparable transactions or market multiples are no longer applicable) and no other inputs are available, the Institute uses valuation techniques that use unobservable inputs. Information on assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis We provide below the IFRS 13 disclosure requirements about assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis. By definition, the carrying value of these items corresponds to the fair value. 56 IOR Annual report 2016 Fair value is defined as the price that would be received in selling an asset or paid when transferring a liability in an ordinary transaction between market participants at the measurement date (i.e. an exit price). Financial assets held for trading These consist of: • Debt securities: the Institute has investments in debt securities valued at market price (markto-market) and regularly traded in active, liquid markets. Consequently, these instruments are classified as Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy, except for some bonds whose prices are determined internally on the basis of similar instruments quoted on active markets and are classified as Level 2; these amounted to EUR 81.5m. • Equity securities: the Institute has investments in equity securities valued at market price (markto-market) and regularly traded in active, liquid markets. Consequently, these instruments classified as Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy. • Investments funds: the Institute has external investment funds amounting to EUR 33.7m. With the exception of a fund of EUR 10.4m as Level 2 (liquid with monthly NAV), investment funds are classified as Level 3. Consequently, at 31 December 2016, a total of EUR 10.4m was classified as Level 2, while the remaining amount for EUR 23.3m was Level 3. Financial assets available for sale These are mainly classified as Level 1, comprise of shares quoted in active, liquid markets, except for two unlisted equity securities, one classified as Level 2 and the other classified as Level 3. Tangible assets for investment This item is comprised of properties directly owned by the Institute. The fair value of the properties is assessed by a qualified, independent expert. The appraisal is based on the real estate market data collected through surveys carried out by major industry players. The parameters used also reflect expert assumptions based on available information. For these reasons, the investment properties are classified as Level 3 on the fair value hierarchy. Assets not measured at fair value on a recurring basis For assets and liabilities not measured at fair value on a recurring basis, the following is the information is required by IFRS 13. Financial assets held to maturity The fair value of financial assets held to maturity securities corresponds to the market value at the balance sheet date. The securities are classified as Level 1 in the fair value hierarchy since they are regularly traded on active, liquid markets. Due from banks This item is comprised of deposits on demand and time deposits with banks in addition to financial “Loans and Receivables” securities issued by banks. Assuming that time deposits do not exceed ninety days, the carrying value of bank deposits, at the balance sheet date, approximates fair value and they are recorded in Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy. For “Loans and Receivables” securities, the fair value represents the market value at the closing date of the financial statements. 57 IOR Annual report 2016 By definition, “Loans and Receivables” securities are not quoted in active, liquid markets, but the valuation is sent weekly by the counterparty and is verified through an internal model. For these reasons, “Loans and Receivables” securities are classified in Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. Due from customers This item is comprised of receivables due from credits granted as advances to clients in addition to “Loans and receivables” securities issued from entities other than banks. For Doubtful loans considered to be non-collectible, the Institute proceeded in the calculation of a specific impairment loss, and the carrying value represents fair value. With regards to other receivables, the fair value was calculated as follows: • Loans and credit lines: calculated by discounting future cash flows using a discount rate representative rate for the Institute; • Overdrafts: given their nature, the value of overdrafts approximates fair value. For “Loans and Receivables” securities the fair value represents the market value at the closing date of the financial statements. By their nature, “Loans and Receivables” securities are not quoted in active, liquid markets, but the valuation is sent weekly by the counterparty and is controlled through an internal model. For these reasons, “Loans and Receivables” securities are classified in Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy. Liabilities not measured at fair value on a recurring basis Due to banks The carrying value of this item approximates fair value, considering their short maturity. Due to customers This item is comprised of client deposits on demand and time deposits, liquid accounts and term deposits related to Asset Management positions. Their carrying value approximates fair value, considering the short maturity. As the fair value calculation is based on parameters not observable on markets, not even indirectly, these are classified as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy. 58 IOR Annual report 2016 1.4.2 Quantitative fair value information 1.4.2.1 Fair value hierarchy (a) Assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis: detail by fair value level 2016 2015 L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 1. Financial assets held for trading 1,802,904 91,923 23,277 1,499,512 132,512 35,942 2. Financial assets carried at fair value 3. Financial assets available for sale 6,157 499 8 13,348 1,811 8 4. Hedging derivatives 5. Tangible assets 2,980 2,897 6. Intangible assets Total 1,809,061 92,422 26,265 1,512,860 134,323 38,847 1. Financial liabilities held for trading 2. Financial liabilities carried at fair value 3. Hedging derivatives Total Key: L1 = Level 1 L2 = Level 2 L3 = Level 3 (b) Annual changes of assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis (Level 3) The following table provides information about the assets measured at fair value on a recurring basis and categorized as Level 3 in the fair value hierarchy at the beginning of the year, disposals and/or additions during the year, and their final values at the balance sheet date. Financial assets Financial assets Tangible held for available assets trading for sale 1. Opening balance 35,942 8 2,897 2. Additions 2.1 Purchases 2.2 Profit recognized in: 2.2.1 Income Statement 1,693 136 - of which Gains 1,693 136 2.2.2 Net Equity 2.3 Transfers from other levels 2.4 Other variations in addition 3. Disposals 3.1 Sales 3.2 Reimbursement 3.3 Losses recognized in: 3.3.1 Income Statement (14,358) (53) - of which Losses (14,358) (53) 3.3.2 Net Equity 3.4 Transfers to other levels 3.5 Other variations in reduction 4. Closing balance 23,277 8 2,980 59 IOR Annual report 2016 (c) Annual changes of liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis (Level 3) The Institute did not hold liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. d) Assets and liabilities not measured at fair value or measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis: detail by fair value level 2016 2015 BV L1 L2 L3 BV L1 L2 L3 1. Financial assets held to maturity 558,956 583,392 614,818 650,020 2. Due from banks 643,229 643,229 644,089 618,660 25,330 3. Due from customers 29,153 30,418 86,234 62,116 25,374 Total 1,231,338 1,226,621 30,418 1,345,141 1,268,680 87,446 25,374 1. Due to banks 10,597 10,597 2. Due to customers 2,398,924 2,398,924 2,323,403 2,323,403 Total 2,398,924 2,398,924 2,334,000 10,597 2,323,403 Key: BV = Book Value L1 = Level 1 L2 = Level 2 L3 = Level 3 1.5 INFORMATION ON “DAY ONE PROFIT/LOSS” The Institute did not earn day one profit/loss from financial instruments pursuant to paragraph 28 of IFRS 7 and other related IAS/IFRS paragraphs. 60 IOR Annual report 2016 PART 2. INFORMATION ON THE BALANCE SHEET ASSETS ITEM 10 - CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS Detail 2016 2015 (a) Cash 15,216 16,213 (b) Free deposits ex art. 9 (b) 35,634 98,524 (c) Free deposits ex art. 9 (c) (d) Other free deposits Total 50,850 114,737 The balance included in (b) represent free deposits with Public Authorities of the Holy See and Vatican City State with the statutory purpose of administering the assets owned by the Holy See (at present APSA). ITEM 20 ASSETS - FINANCIAL ASSETS HELD FOR TRADING 2.1 Detail by asset type 2016 2015 L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 A. Cash assets 1. Debt securities 1.1 Structured securities 1.2 Other debt securities 1,750,174 81,519 1,436,403 127,125 2. Equity securities 52,730 63,109 3. UCI units 10,404 23,277 5,387 35,942 4. Loans 4.1 Outstanding repos 4.2 Other Total A 1,802,904 91,923 23,277 1,499,512 132,512 35,942 B. Derivatives 1. Financial derivatives 1.1 Held for trading 1.2 Related to the fair value option 1.3 Other 2. Credit derivatives 2.1 Held for trading 2.2 Related to the fair value option 2.3 Other Total B Total (A+B) 1,802,904 91,923 23,277 1,499,512 132,512 35,942 The table shows all financial assets, by type, allocated to the trading portfolio and classified in the fair value hierarchy (L1, L2 or L3) according to their nature. Financial assets held for trading is primarily comprised of debt securities classified as level 1 in the 61 IOR Annual report 2016 fair value hierarchy; the only financial assets classified as level 3 are shares of UCI units. As of 31 December 2016, similar to the prior year, the Institute did not have any derivative financial instruments in the trading portfolio. 2.2 Detail by borrowers/issuers 2016 2015 A. Cash assets 1. Debt securities (a) Public entities 912,466 546,426 (b) Financial companies 703,239 705,268 (c) Insurance companies 9,286 21,217 (d) Non financial companies 206,702 290,617 (e) Other subjects 2. Equity securities (a) Banks (b) Other issuers: - insurance companies 2,759 1,074 - financial companies 36,529 57,654 - non financial companies 13,442 4,381 - other 3. UCI units 33,681 41,329 4. Loans (a) Public entities (b) Financial companies (c) Insurance companies (d) Non financial companies (e) Other subjects Total A 1,918,104 1,667,966 B. Derivatives (a) Banks (b) Customers Total B Total (A+B) 1,918,104 1,667,966 UCI units in the financial assets held for trading refers exclusively to investment funds managed by third parties composed by equity securities. Regarding the composition of the funds, refer to the table included in section 5.2.6 “Information on unconsolidated structured entities” of Part 5 “Information on risks and hedging policies”. No borrowers/issuers are residents of the Vatican City State. Line (a) Public entities of the item A.1 Debt securities is exclusively comprised of securities issued by Foreign Central Public Administrations. In the portfolio of financial assets held for trading there are no equity securities classified as in default or at the risk of default. 62 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 40 ASSETS - FINANCIAL ASSETS AVAILABLE FOR SALE 4.1 Detail by asset type 2016 2015 L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 1. Debt securities 1.1 Structured securities 1.2 Other debt securities 2. Equity securities 2.1 Carried at fair value 6,157 499 13,348 1,811 2.2 Carried at cost 8 8 3. UCI units 4. Loans Total 6,157 499 8 13,348 1,811 8 4.2 Detail by borrowers/issuers 2016 2015 A. Cash assets 1. Debt securities (a) Public entities (b) Financial companies (c) Insurance companies (d) Non financial companies (e) Other subjects 2. Equity securities (a) Banks (b) Other issuers: - insurance companies 6,157 13,348 - financial companies - non financial companies 507 1,819 - other 3. UCI units 4. Loans (a) Public entities (b) Financial companies (c) Insurance companies (d) Non financial companies (e) Other subjects Total A 6,664 15,167 No borrowers/issuers are resident in the Vatican City State. In the portfolio of financial assets available for sale, there are no equity securities classified in default or at the risk of default. 4.3 Financial assets available for sale with specific hedges The Institute did not hold financial assets available for sale with specific hedges. 63 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 50 ASSETS - FINANCIAL ASSETS HELD TO MATURITY 5.1 Detail by asset type 2016 2015 FV FV BV L1 L2 L3 BV L1 L2 L3 1. Debt securities - structured - other 558,956 583,392 614,818 650,020 2. Loans Total 558,956 583,392 614,818 650,020 Key: BV = book value, FV = fair value Financial assets held to maturity is mainly comprised of government bonds issued by European countries and bonds issued by international financial entities. As of 31 December 2016, securities with maturity less than 1 year (31 December 2017) had a balance sheet value amounting to EUR 316.4m. 5.2 Detail by borrowers/issuers 2016 2015 1. Debt securities (a) Public entities 441,580 518,262 (b) Financial companies 88,033 66,998 (c) Insurance companies (d) Non financial companies 29,343 29,558 (e) Other subjects 2. Loans (a) Public entities (b) Financial companies (c) Insurance companies (d) Non financial companies (e) Other subjects Total 558,956 614,818 No borrowers/issuers are residents of the Vatican City State. Line (a) Public entities of the item A.1 Debt securities is exclusively comprised of securities issued by Foreign Central Public Administrations. 5.3 Financial assets held to maturity with specific hedges The Institute did not hold financial assets held to maturity with specific hedges. 64 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 60 ASSETS - DUE FROM BANKS 6.1 Detail by type 2016 2015 FV FV BV L1 L2 L3 BV L1 L2 L3 A. Credits ex art. 14 (c) 1. Fixed-term deposits 77,104 77,104 60,707 60,707 2. Outstanding repos 3. Others B. Credits ex art. 14 (d) 1. Fixedterm deposits 2. Outstanding repos 3. Others C. Due from banks 1. Loans 1.1 Current accounts and demand deposits 457,624 457,624 265,426 265,426 1.2 Outstanding repos 108,501 108,501 292,527 292,527 1.3 Other loans: (a) Outstanding repos (b) Finance lease (c) Other 2. Debt securities 2.1 Structured securities 2.2 Other debt securities 25,429 25,330 Total 643,229 643,229 644,089 618,660 25,330 Key: BV = book value, FV = fair value No assets impairment was recorded. Line A. Credits ex art. 14 (c) is comprised of different deposits from free deposits held with the Public Authorities of the Holy See and Vatican City State with the statutory purpose of administering the assets owned by the Holy See (at present, APSA). 6.2 Credits with specific hedges The Institute did not hold credits with specific hedges and it has not outstanding finance leases. 65 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 70 ASSETS - DUE FROM CUSTOMERS 7.1 Detail by type 2016 2015 Book value Fair value Book value Fair value Impaired Impaired Non Purch- Other L1 L2 L3 Non Purch- Other L1 L2 L3 impaired ased impaired ased A. Loans 1. Current accounts 8,424 27 8,451 518 53 570 2, Outstanding repos 3. Mortgages 4. Credit cards, personal loans and loans on salary 5. Finance lease 6. Factoring 7. Other loans 12,495 8,207 21,967 13,416 9,944 24,804 B. Debt securities 1. Structured securities 2. Other debt securities 62,303 62,116 Total 20,919 8,234 30,418 76,237 9,997 62,116 25,374 Additional supporting information is provided in Part 5 “Information on risks and related hedging policies” of this document. It is to be mentioned that the Institute is not authorized by the Autorità di Informazione Finanziaria to carry out the activity of “lending” (cfr. art. l (l) (b) of the Law n. XVIII and art. 3 (24) (b) of the Regulation No. l), as credit activities on its own. However, it is authorized to make “advances” that is to disburse funds to its clients and to a limited extent following guarantee of future income (such as, for example, in the case of the advance of salary or pension paid by the Holy See or the Governatorato of Vatican City) or guaranteed by financial assets of the same amount deposited by the clients at the Institute. 7.2 Detail by borrowers 2016 2015 N Impaired Impaired on Non impaired Purchased Other impaired Purchased Other 1. Debt securities (a) Public Entities (b) Financial companies 52,304 (c) Insurance companies 10,000 (d) Non financial companies (e) Other subjects 2. Loans to: (a) Public Entities 8,290 (b) Financial companies (c) Insurance companies (d) Non financial companies 3,315 3,510 (e) Other subjects 9,314 8,234 10,423 9,997 Total 20,919 8,234 76,237 9,997 66 IOR Annual report 2016 7.3 Credits with specific hedges The Institute did not hold credits with specific hedges. ITEM 100 ASSETS – INVESTMENT IN SUBSIDIARIES 10.1 Information on investment in subsidiaries The Institute holds a financial investment in a real estate company, SGIR S.r.l., which is based in Italy and is 100% owned by the IOR. 10.2 Material investments in subsidiaries: book value, fair value and dividends received The value of the investment in the real estate company SGIR S.r.l. was EUR 15.8 m. There was no change in the value of the investment during 2016 and no dividends were paid. The equity of SGIR S.r.l. as of 31 December 2016 was EUR 22.6m (2015: EUR 22.1m), including EUR 12.4m (2015: EUR 12.4m) for a Fiscal Revaluation Reserve. Being the investment in an unlisted company, IOR has not carried out the measurement of the fair value. 10.3 Material investment in subsidiaries: financial information A. Subsidiaries entities SGIR S.r.l. 262 596 25,783 3,975 100 1,687 -1 8 869 443 443 443 B. Entities subject to joint control C. Entities subject to significant influence 67 IOR Annual report 2016 Compreh ensive income (3) = (1) + (2) Other income items after taxes (2) Profit (loss) for the year (1) Profit (loss) from groups of assets being disposed after taxes Profit (loss) from current operations after taxes Profit (loss) from current operations before taxes Value adjustmen ts and writebacks on tangible and intangible assets Financial assets Non financial assets Financial liabilities Non financial liabilities Total income Interest margin Cash and cash equivalents ITEM 110 ASSETS -TANGIBLE ASSETS 11.1 Tangible assets in-use: detail of the assets measured at cost 2016 2015 1. Owned assets (a) land (b) buildings (c) furniture 1 14 (d) electronic equipment 115 59 (e) other 11 2. Assets acquired under finance lease (a) land (b) buildings (c) furniture (d) electronic equipment (e) other Total 116 84 11.4 Tangible assets held for investment: detail of the assets measured at fair value 2016 2015 FV FV BV L1 L2 L3 BV L1 L2 L3 1. Owned assets (a) land (b) buildings 2,980 2,980 2,897 2,897 2. Assets acquired under finance lease (a) land (b) buildings Total 2,980 2,980 2,897 2,897 Key: BV = book value, FV = fair value 68 IOR Annual report 2016 11.5 Tangible assets in- use: annual changes Land Buildings Furniture Electronic Other Total equipment A. Opening balance 2,628 4,335 32 6,995 A.1 Net total adjustments (2,614) (4,276) (21) (6,911) A.2 Net opening balance 14 59 11 84 B. Increases: B.1 Purchases 1 113 114 B.2 Capitalised improvement costs B.3 Write-backs B.4 Positive fair value differences recognized in a) Net Equity b) Income Statement B.5 Positive foreign exchange differences B.6 Transfer from investment property B.7 Other changes C. Decreases: C.1 Sales C.2 Depreciation (14) (57) (11) (82) C.3 Impairment losses recognized in: a) Net Equity b) Income Statement C.4 Negative fair value differences recognized in a) Net Equity b) Income Statement C.5 Negative foreign exchange differences C.6 Transfer to: a) investment property b) assets being disposed C.7 Other changes D. Net closing balance 2,629 4,448 32 7,109 D.1 Total net adjustments (2,628) (4,333) (32) (6,993) D.2 Gross closing balance 1 115 116 All tangible assets in-use were measured at cost. 69 IOR Annual report 2016 11.6 Tangible assets held for investment: annual changes Total Land Buildings A. Opening balance 2,897 B. Increases: B.1 Purchases B.2 Capitalised improvement costs B.3 Positive fair value differences 136 B.4 Write-backs B.5 Positive foreign exchange differences B.6 Transfer from tangible assets for functional use B.7 Other changes C. Decreases C.1 Sales C.2 Depreciation (53) C.3 Negative fair value differences C.4 Impairment losses C.5 Negative foreign exchange differences C.6 Transfer to other assets a) tangible assets for functional use b) current assets being disposed C.7 Other changes D. Closing balance 2,980 All the tangible assets held for investment are measured at fair value. The item incudes 5 investment properties received in the past through donations, totaling EUR 3.0m. The item increased from 31 December 2015 due to an increase in fair values. The Institute has surveys performed by a qualified independent expert. As of 31 December 2016, the properties did not generate any rental income. In October 2015, the Institute signed a lease agreement with its subsidiary SGIR for the use of four properties for free. In 2016 SGIR did not receive rental income on these properties. In relation to the fifth property, please note that during the month of December 2016 the IOR took the full ownership. At the same time the Institute has not yet the property of the real estate, due to the completion of some formalities related to the inheritance. 70 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 120 ASSETS - INTANGIBLE ASSETS 12.1. Detail by asset 2016 2015 Definite Indefinite Definite Indefinite life life life life A.1. Goodwill A.2. Other intangible assets A.2.1 Assets carried at cost: (a) intangible assets generated internally (b) other assets 1,044 875 A.2.2 Assets carried at fair value (a) intangible assets generated internally (b) other assets Total 1,044 875 Intangible assets consist of software programs and cost incurred to implement them. 12.2 Annual changes Other intangible assets Other intangible generated internally assets: other Goodwill DEF INDEF DEF INDEF Total A. Opening balance 6,229 6,229 A.1 Total net adjustments (5,354) (5,354) A.2 Net opening balance 875 875 B. Increases B.1 Purchases 852 852 B.2 Increases of intangible assets generated internally B.3 Write-backs B.4 Positive fair value differences recognized in - Net Equity - Income Statement B.5 Positive foreign exchange differences B.6 Other changes C. Decreases C.1 Sales C.2 Impairment losses - Depreciation (683) (683) - Write downs recognized in + Net Equity + Income Statement C.3 Negative fair value differences recognized in - Net Equity - Income Statement C.4 Transfer to non-current assets being disposed C.5 Negative foreign exchange differences C.6 Other changes D. Net closing balance 7,081 7,081 D.1 Total net adjustments (6,037) (6,037) E. Gross closing balance 1,044 1,044 71 IOR Annual report 2016 Intangible assets are carried at cost. The IOR does not have internally generated intangible assets. ITEM 150 ASSETS - OTHER ASSETS 15. Other Assets 2016 2015 1.Gold 22,394 22,766 2. Medals and precious coins 10,490 10,437 3. Securities sold not settled 4. Sundry debtors 8,095 7,553 5. Prepayments 980 801 Total 41,959 41,557 Gold is mainly deposited with the U.S. Federal Reserve, while medals and precious coins are kept in the IOR vaults. Gold is carried at the lower of cost and net estimated recoverable amount. Medals and precious coins are appraised on the basis of their weight and the quality of gold and silver they contain, carried at the lower of cost and net estimated recoverable amount. For further information regarding the accounting policies adopted, their impacts and their evaluation, please refer to Part. 1 “Accounting policies” Section 1.1.4 “Other aspects” in these financial statements. Also included in Other Assets is Sundry debtors, for EUR 6.5m, representing commission from asset management services not yet received at the closing date of the financial statements.These commissions, pertaining to the second half of 2016, were collected at the beginning of 2017. Furthermore, other assets include prepayments, which is comprised of EUR 799,000 deposited as guarantees for credit cards transactions and EUR 160,000 in advances for credit cards transactions. 72 IOR Annual report 2016 LIABILITIES ITEM 10 LIABILITIES - DUE TO BANKS 1.1 Detail by product 2016 2015 1. Due to Public Authorities of which: - Public Authorities ex art. 24 (c) 10,597 2. Due to foreign Public Authorities of which: - Public Authorities ex art. 24 (d) 3. Due to banks 3.1 Current accounts and demand deposits 3.2 Fixed-term deposits 3.3 Loans 3.3.1 Reverse repos 3.3.2 Other 3.4 Amounts due under repurchase agreements of own equity instruments 3.5 Other liabilities Total 10,597 Fair value - level 1 10,597 Fair value - level 2 Fair value - level 3 Total fair value – 10,597 Due to banks include amounts due to the Holy See and Vatican City State Public Authorities, the statutory purpose of which is to administer the Holy See’s proprietary assets (at present APSA). Amounts due as of 31 December 2015 was EUR 10.6m comprised solely by debt on demand to APSA. As of 31 December 2016, there were no amounts due to banks. 1.2 Subordinated liabilities There are no subordinated liabilities recognized in this item. 73 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 20 LIABILITIES - DUE TO CUSTOMERS 2.1 Detail by type 2016 2015 1. Current accounts and demand deposits 2,397,688 2,319,257 2. Fixed-term deposits 1,236 4,146 3. Loans 3.1 Reverse repos 3.2 Other 4. Amounts due under repurchase agreements of own equity instruments 5. Other payables Total 2,398,924 2,323,403 Fair value - level 1 Fair value - level 2 Fair value - level 3 2,398,924 2,323,403 Total fair value 2,398,924 2,323,403 Due to customers had a slight increase from 2015, recording, on one hand, an increase in the number of accounts and demand deposits, offset by a decrease in fixed-term deposits. The above amounts includeliquidity and term deposits related to the Asset Management agreements, for which IOR is the depository institution. These are comprised of: Deposits related to Asset management accounts 2016 2015 Deposits on demand 417,026 424,815 Time deposits Total 417,026 424,815 The item Due to customers also includes a deposit at the disposal of the Commission of Cardinals to support works of religion. As of the balance sheet date, this amounted to EUR 6.3m (2015: EUR 11.3m). The EUR 5.0m decrease was mainly due to the distribution of funds for charitable activities. 2.2 Subordinated liabilities There are no subordinated liabilities recognized in this item. ITEM 100 LIABILITIES - LEGATES The item includes the deposits of the “Legates” amounting to EUR 47.1m (2015: 48.3m) as of 31 December 2016, comprised of 293 funds (2015: 295) donated to the Institute. The IOR has the burden, for a significant period of time, of fulfilling specific ecclesiastical functions or otherwise achieving purposes related to works of piety, apostolate and charity works, on the basis of its annual income. 74 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 110 LIABILITIES - OTHER LIABILITIES Other liabilities 2016 2015 Inheritances to be settled 6,384 7,587 Invoices to be received 4,515 5,161 Outstanding checks 1,070 1,105 Remunerations to be paid 914 966 Other sundry creditors 908 404 Funds for charitable contributions 3,220 3,303 Liabilities for guarantees issued and commitments towards third parties 1,699 1,561 Securities purchased not settled Total 18,710 20,087 The item “Inheritances to be settled” represents the property values of deceased donors pending resolution of inheritance issues. The amount of EUR 1.7m (2015: EUR 1.6m) reported under “Liabilities for guarantees issued and commitments towards third parties” is due to guarantees in addition to the commitments to third parties to lend funds of uncertain use (see paragraph 13.1 Guarantees and commitments). Funds for charitable contributions are comprised of the Fund for Holy Masses and Fund for Missionary Activities. Fund for Missionary Activities The Fund for Missionary Activities is used to distribute contributions to congregations and institutions that operate missionary and charitable activities. It is mainly funded by small donations with a commitment to execute Missionary activities. Donations and distributions are recorded directly into the Fund’s account. Distributions to the beneficiaries are approved by a Committee comprised of the Prelate, the “Aggiunto al Direttore” and the Client Relationship Manager. Fund for Holy Masses The Fund for Holy Masses is used to distribute contributions to priests for Holy Masses. It is financed through small donations with a commitment to the Holy Masses. Donations and distributions are directly recorded into the Fund’s account. Distributions to the priests are approved by a Committee comprised of the Prelate, the “Aggiunto al Direttore” and the Client Relationship Manager. 75 IOR Annual report 2016 The detail of Funds for charitable contributions is as follows: Funds for charitable 2016 2015 A. Fund for Missionary Activities 156 239 1. Balance at 1 January 239 189 2. Donations received 86 145 3. Distributions for Missionary Activities (169) (95) B. Fund for Holy Masses 3,064 3,064 1. Balance at 1 January 3,064 2,971 2. Donations received 83 154 3. Distributions for Holy Masses (83) (61) Total 3,220 3,303 Distributions of funds to beneficiaries are subject to strict internal policies. It should be noted that the charitable activities of the Commission of Cardinals are made through a deposit included in item 20 of the liabilities. ITEM 120 LIABILITIES - STAFF SEVERANCE FUND 10.1 Annual changes 2016 2015 A. Opening balance 6,788 6,551 B. Increases B.1 Allocation for the year 534 530 B.2 Other changes 518 C. Decreases C.1 Benefits paid (624) (84) C.2 Other changes (223) (209) D. Closing balance 6,993 6,788 The Staff severance fund comprises indemnities paid to personnel when they leave the IOR. 76 IOR Annual report 2016 The change in the fund balance is summarised as follows: 2016 2015 Balance at 1 January 6,788 6,551 Current costs 459 457 Contribution by individuals 75 73 Transfers to benefit plan for pensions (223) Advances (80) (84) Advances restitution 148 Consideration paid during the year (544) Actuarial (gain) loss of the year 370 (209) Balance at 31 December 6,993 6,788 The actuarial assumptions used for the valuation of the Staff severance fund are the same as those used for the Benefit Plan Liability for pensions, described in Item 130 (a) Liabilities. As defined by IAS 19, a sensitivity analysis was performed on the variation of the main actuarial assumptions included in the calculation model; these assumptions are: • annual discount rate; • annual rate of salary growth; • annaul inflation rate; • annual mortality rate Annual discount rate Annual rate of salary growth Annual inflation rate Mortality rate Liabilities +0,50 p.p. -0,50 p.p. +0,50 p.p. -0,50 p.p. +0,50 p.p. -0,50 p.p. +0,025 p.p. -0,025 p.p. 6,866 7,127 7,117 6,874 6,992 6,994 6,965 7,008 10.2 Other information Please refer to the paragraphs regarding the accounting policies for more information on the calculation of employee termination indemnities. The portion of employee gross salaries retained by the Institute is 1.5%. No payments were made to the Vatican Pension Plan. Funds were managed by the IOR Treasury department. ITEM 130 LIABILITIES - ALLOWANCES FOR RISKS AND CHARGES 11.1 Detail by type 2016 2015 1. Post employment benefits for pensions 121,088 108,338 2. Other allowances for risks and charges 2.1 legal disputes 2.2 staff expenses 2.3 other 3,500 16,500 Total 124,588 124,838 77 IOR Annual report 2016 11.2 Annual changes Provision for pension and similar obligations Other provisions Total A. Opening balance 108,388 16,500 124,838 B. Increases B.1 Provision for the year 2,731 2,731 B.2 Time value changes B.3 Changes due to discount rate variations 12,905 12,905 B.4 Other changes 223 223 C. Decreases C.1 Utilization in the year (3,109) (13,000) (16,109) C.2 Changes due to discount rate variations C.3 Other changes D. Closing balance 121,088 3,500 124,588 11.3 Pension plan liabilities defined benefit obligations More in detail, the changes in the Plan concern the following items: 2016 2015 Opening balance 108,338 117,396 Current Service cost 607 780 Interest cost 2,031 1,811 Contribution by individuals 93 96 Transfer from staff severance fund 223 Pensions paid during the year (3,109) (3,075) Transfer out Actuarial (gain) loss of the year 12,905 (8,670) Closing balance 121,088 108,338 The actuarial valuation of the defined benefit plan liability was performed using the following assumptions: 2016 2015 Annual inflation rate 2.00% 2.00% Annual discount rate 1.43% 1.93% Annual rate for revaluation of pension 2.00% 2.00% Annual rate of real increase salary 2.35% 2.35% The Current Service Cost is the actuarial present value of benefits due to employees for services rendered during the period. The Interest Cost is the increase in the present value of the obligation from the passage of time and it is proportional to the discount rate used in the assessment of the previous year’s liabilities. The Actuarial gain/loss is the change in the liability in the present year arising from: • the effect of the differences between the previous actuarial assumptions and what has actually occurred; • the effect of the changes in actuarial assumptions. The results are recognized directly to Equity in a specific reserve named “Valuation reserves” “Post- 78 IOR Annual report 2016 employment benefit actuarial gain (loss) reserves” and the actuarial gain or loss is recorded in Other Comprehensive Income. For Staff severance fund and Provisions for pensions and similar obligations, in 2016, the Institute recognized an actuarial loss of EUR 13.3m (2015: gain of EUR 8.9m) in Other Comprehensive Income. Consequently, change in the “Valuation reserves” (item 140 Equity) was a loss of EUR 46.0m (2015: EUR -32.7m); the increased loss compared to the prior year is due to the decrease in the discount rate to 1.43% in 2016 from 1.93% in 2015. A total of 102 employees are active and contribute to the Pension plan (2015:109). A total of 74 former employees are in retirement and benefit from the plan (2015: 70). As defined by IAS 19, a sensitivity analysis was performed on the variation of the main actuarial assumptions included in the calculation model; these assumptions are: • annual discount rate; • annual rate of salary growth; • annaul inflation rate; • annual mortality rate. Annual discount rate Annual rate of salary growth Annual inflation rate Mortality rate Liabilities +0,50 p.p. -0,50 p.p. +0,50 p.p. -0,50 p.p. +0,50 p.p. -0,50 p.p. +0,025 p.p. -0,025 p.p. 110,727 133,037 120,674 119,123 131,768 109,479 120,757 121,407 11.4 Other information Please refer to the paragraphs regarding the accounting policies for more information on the calculation of the pension fund. The portion of employee gross salaries retained by the Institute is 6%. No payments were made to the Vatican Pension Plan. Funds were managed by the IOR Treasury department. 11.5 Other provisions As of 31 December 2016, based on analysis performed with the support of legal consultants, a liability of EUR 3.5m was estimated for potential tax liabilities. The reestimation led to the recognition of EUR 13m in income included in the item 160 Income Statement “Net provisions to risks and charges” corresponding to item 130 Liabilities “Provision for risks and charges” line (b) “Other provisions” of the balance sheet. As the estimate was based on critical assumptions, actual results may differ from what is expected when the future event will take place. The relative content of the item was explained in the paragraph 1.1.4.1 Other aspects - Critical accounting estimates and judgements, Part 1 Accounting policies. 79 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 160 170 EQUITY - RESERVES 12.1 Capital Capital, as a separate component of Equity, represents a permanent endowment that cannot be reduced or distributed, except in case of cessation or liquidation of the entity. During 2016, no changes were recorded in Capital balance, amounting to EUR 300m. Securities and liquid funds made up the Capital; in detail, deposits to APSA, other liquid assets, supranational bonds and governative bonds with high quality credit rating. 12.2 Reserves The equity balance is comprised of two different reserves, Available and Unavailable reserves. Unavailable Reserves are earning reserves designed to further strengthen the Institute’s Equity and long-term stability. Available Reserves are earning reserves representing earnings that could potentially fulfill a “stabilization” function, subject to a resolution of the Commission of Cardinals. During 2016, no changes were recognized in Unavailable Reserves, amounting to EUR 100m, and Available Reserves, amounting to EUR 282m. Unavailable reserves are comprised of securities, properties and precious metals. In detail are gold bars, medals and coins, investment in subsidiary (SGIR S.r.l.), real estate properties and liquid financial instruments traded on regulated markets. The Available Reserve is comprised of securities, representing liquid financial instruments traded on regulated markets. 13 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 13.1 Guarantees and commitments 2016 2015 1) Financial guarantees given a) Banks 27 27 b) Customers 15 41 2) Commercial guarantees given a) Banks b) Customers 3) Irrevocable commitments to lend funds a) Banks b) Customers i) of certain use ii) of uncertain use 4,000 4,000 4) Underlying commitments on credit derivatives: protection sales 5) Assets pledged as collateral of third party commitments 6) Other commitments Total 4,042 4,068 80 IOR Annual report 2016 At the balance sheet date, the Institute has a commitment of EUR 4m of uncertain use issued in favor of third parties. The IOR issued in past three guarantees covered by assets held in custody. No new guarantees were issued in 2016. The guarantees were initially recognized at their nominal value, which is their fair value. In subsequent periods, the guarantees are reported at the amount determined in accordance with IAS 37 “Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets”. 13.4 Asset Management and Brokerage on behalf of third parties 2016 2015 1. Trading on behalf of customers (a) purchases (i) settled 129,087 (ii) to be settled (b) sales (i) settled 84,530 (ii) to be settled 2. Portfolio management (assets management) (a) individual 3,110,929 3,185,685 (b) collective 3. Custody and administration of securities (a) third party security held in deposit: related to depositary bank activities (excluding portfolio management) (i) security issued by the entity that prepare the financial statement (ii) other securities (b) third party securities held in deposit: other (excluding portfolio management) (i) security issued by the entity that prepare the financial statement (ii) other securities (c) third party securities deposited with third parties 554,763 646,161 (d) proprietary portfolio securities deposited with third parties 2,508,160 2,586,923 4. Other operations Assets under Management agreements are valued using the mark-to-market method. They include the total value of portfolios, and liquid and term deposits. Accruals are also included, both on securities and on liquid and term deposits.The IOR is the depository of liquid and for term deposits, amounting to EUR 417.2m (2015: EUR 424.8m), as disclosed in item 20 Liabilities “Due to customers”. Assets under custody agreements are also valued based on current bid prices, using the mark-to-market method. They also include accruals on interest to be received on debt securities. Due to the change in accounting system, the data for 2015 were too heavy to be extracted and barely relevant in comparison to the information provided. 81 IOR Annual report 2016 PART 3. INFORMATION ON INCOME STATEMENT ITEM 10 INCOME STATEMENT - INTEREST AND SIMILAR INCOME 1.1 Interest income and similar income: detail 2016 2015 Debt Loans Other Total Total securities transactions 1. Financial assets held for trading 22,574 22,574 26,202 2. Financial assets available for sale 3. Financial assets held to maturity 15,217 15,217 16,284 4. Due from banks 135 1,480 1,615 3,844 5. Due from customers 46 380 426 2,311 6. Financial assets carried at fair value 7. Hedging derivatives 8. Other assets Total 37,972 1,860 39,832 48,641 Interest and similar income (other than those recorded in the item Net value adjustments/write backs) accrued during the year in positions classified as impaired at the balance sheet date amounted to EUR 310,000. They were directly deducted from line 5 in the table above. ITEM 20 INCOME STATEMENT - INTEREST AND SIMILAR EXPENSES 1.4 Interest and similar expenses: detail 2016 2015 Payables Securities Other Total Total transactions 1. Due to Public Entities (i) Public Authorities (ii) Foreign Public Authorities (iii) International and Regional Organizations 2. Due to banks (52) (52) (16) 3. Due to customers (3,117) (3,117) (4,987) 4. Outstanding securities 5. Financial liabilities held for trading 6. Financial liabilities designated at fair value through profit and loss 7. Other liabilities and funds 8. Hedging derivatives 9. Due to other subjects Total (3,169) (3,169) (5,003) In 2016 the Institute recorded a general decrease in all items related to interest margin, both income and expense, bringing consequently to a net reduction in the Interest Margin. Interest income decreased due to the impact of lower interest rates determined by the European Central Bank in 2014, 2015 and 2016, and the expiration of many positions with higher interest rates. Interest expense decreased on interest payable on customer deposits (-37%) from the expiration of term deposits with high interest rates. 82 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 40 INCOME STATEMENT - FEE AND COMMISSION INCOME 2.1 Fee and commission income: detail 2016 2015 a) Guarantees given/received 1 1 b) Credit derivatives c) Administration, brokerage and consultancy services: 1. trading in financial instruments 654 1,340 2. trading in currencies 3. portfolio management 3.1 individual 12,483 13,667 3.2 collective 4. Custody and administration of securities 113 208 5. Custodian bank 6. Securities placement 7. Receipt and transmission of orders activity 8. Consulting 8.1 investments 8.2 financial structure 9. Distribution of third-party services 9.1 portfolio management 9.1.1 individual 9.1.2 collective 9.2 insurance products 9.3 other products d) collection and payment services 2,196 2,053 e) servicing of securitization operations f) factoring services g) rate and tax collection office services h) multilateral trading systems management i) current account keeping and management 369 400 j) other services 21 41 Total 15,837 17,710 The decrease in Fee and Commission income was due to the general reduction in customer transactions, the decrease in assets under management agreements, and the shift of some high network clients from equity lines to asset management lines (especially bond ones) with lower commission. 2.2 Fee and commission income: distribution channels of products and services All the IOR products and services are offered at IOR locations in Vatican City State. 83 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 50 INCOME STATEMENT - FEE AND COMMISSION EXPENSE 2.3 Fee and commission expense: detail 2016 2015 a) Guarantees given/received b) Credit derivatives c) Administration, brokerage and consultancy services: 1. trading in financial instruments (83) (648) 2. trading in currencies 3. portfolio management 3.1 own portfolio 3.2 third-party portfolio 4. Custody and administration of securities (1,613) (913) 5. Placement of financial instruments 6. Sales of financial instrument, products and services through other outlets d) Collection and payment services (761) (921) e) Administration and management of current accounts (571) f) Other services (1) Total (3,029) (2,482) The increase in Fee and commission expense was mainly due to the increase in custody and administration fees for securities (doubled compared with 2015) and fee and commissions charged by correspondent banks on current accounts of the Institute as charges for the management of liquidity. ITEM 70 INCOME STATEMENT - DIVIDENDS AND SIMILAR INCOME 3 Dividends and similar income: detail 2016 2015 Dividends Income Dividends Income from from UCI UCI A. Financial assets held for trading 860 812 686 800 B. Financial assets available for sale 435 468 C. Financial assets carried at fair value through profit and loss D. Investment in subsidiaries Total 1,295 812 1,154 800 Dividends received in 2016 for financial assets held for trading was EUR 1.7m (2015: EUR 1.5m), an increase of 12.5%. In 2016, the Institute received dividends of EUR 435,000 from investment securities recorded as financial assets available for sale (2015: EUR 468,000). 84 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 80 INCOME STATEMENT - NET INCOME FROM TRADING ACTIVITIES 4. Net income from trading activities: detail 2016 Gains Profit from Losses Losses from Net trading trading income (A) activities (B) (C) activities (D) [(A+B) - (C+D)] 1. Financial assets held for trading 1.1 Debt securities 6,167 1,429 6,041 1,555 1.2 Equity securities 1,603 1,509 94 1.3 UCI units 1,693 14,445 (12,752) 1.4 Loans 1.5 Other 126 126 2. Financial liabilities held for trading 2.1 Debt securities 2.2 Payables 2.3 Other 3. Financial assets and liabilities: exchange differences 1,529 470 5 1,994 4. Derivatives 4.1 Financial derivatives - On debt securities and interest rates - On equity securities and stock indices - On currencies and gold - Other 4.2 Credit derivatives Total 10,992 2,025 (22,000) (8,983) 2015 Gains Profit from Losses Losses from Net trading trading income (A) activities (B) (C) activities (D) [(A+B) - (C+D)] 1. Financial assets held for trading 1.1 Debt securities 2,467 8,698 11,632 16,670 (17,137) 1.2 Equity securities 2,330 2,604 1,873 3,368 (307) 1.3 UCI units 63 104 18 149 1.4 Loans 1.5 Other 18 18 2. Financial liabilities held for trading 2.1 Debt securities 2.2 Payables 2.3 Other 3. Financial assets and liabilities: exchange differences 24 2,727 236 617 1,899 4. Derivatives 4.1 Financial derivatives - On debt securities and interest rates - On equity securities and stock indices - On currencies and gold - Other 4.2 Credit derivatives Total 4,884 14,133 13,741 20,673 (15,378) 85 IOR Annual report 2016 Below is a summary of the net trading results in 2016 compared to 2015. In 2016, debt securities recognized a gain of EUR 1.6m from a loss of EUR 17.1m in 2015. Realized gain from trading activity was EUR 1.4m compared to a loss of EUR 8.0m in 2015, and the unrealized gain was EUR 120,000 compared to a loss of EUR 9.1m in 2015. In 2016, equity securities recognized a gain of EUR 94,000 from a loss of EUR 307,000 in 2015. No realized profit (loss) was recognized compared to a loss of EUR 764,000 in 2015, while unrealized gain (loss) was EUR 94,000, compared to EUR 457,000 in 2015. In 2016, UCI units recognized a loss of EUR 12.8m from a gain in 2015 of EUR 149,000. No realized gain was recorded in 2016 compared to a gain of EUR 86,000 in 2015, while unrealized loss was EUR 12.8m compared to an unrealized gain of EUR 63,000 in 2015. Line 1.5 “Financial assets held for trading: other” includes gains (losses) from currency trade, gold and other precious metals, recognizing a gain of EUR 126,000 in 2016 from EUR 18,000 in 2015 (realized). “Financial assets and liabilities: exchange differences” recognized a gain of EUR 2.0m from a profit of EUR 1.9m in 2015, comprised of EUR 470,00 realized profit in 2016 compared to EUR 2.1m in 2015 and unrealized profit of EUR 1.5m in 2016 compared to unrealized loss of (EUR 212,000) in 2015. ITEM 100 INCOME STATEMENT - PROFIT (LOSS) ON DISPOSAL OR REPURCHASE 6. Profit (loss) on disposal or repurchase: detail Voci/Componenti reddituali 2016 2015 Profit Losses Net Profit Losses Net income income Financial assets 1. Due from banks 2. Due from customers 3. Financial assets available for sale 3.1 Debt securities 3.2 Equity securities 1.518 (19) 1.499 3.3 UCI units 3.4 Loans 4. Financial assets held to maturity Total assets 1.518 (19) 1.499 Financial liabilities 1. Due to banks 2. Due to customers 3. Outstanding securities Total liabilities 86 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 130 INCOME STATEMENT - NET LOSSES/REVERSAL ON IMPAIRMENT 8.1 Net impairment losses on loans: detail Value adjustments (1) Write-backs (2) Specific Specific Portfolio 2016 2015 Derecognition Other Portfolio ABAB (1)+(2) 1. Due from banks - Loans - Debt securities 2. Due from customers Purchased impaired loans - Loans - Debt securities Other receivables - Loans (1,453) 350 58 (1,045) 353 - Debt securities Total (1,453) 350 58 (1,045) 353 8.2 Net impairment losses on financial assets available for sale: detail Value adjustments (1) Write-backs (2) Specific Specific 2016 2015 Derecognition Other A B (1)+(2) 1. Debt securities 2. Equity securities (148) (148) 3. UCI units 4. Loans to banks 5. Loans to customers Total (148) (148) 8.4 Net impairment losses on other financial assets: detail Value adjustments (1) Write-backs (2) Specific Specific Portfolio 2016 2015 Derecognition Other Portfolio ABAB (1)+(2) 1. Guarantees given (138) (138) (156) 2. Credit derivatives 3. Commitments to lend funds 4. Other operations Total (138) (138) (156) 87 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 150 INCOME STATEMENT - ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES 9.1 Personnel expenses: detail 2016 2015 A. Staff 1. Wages and salaries (5,078) (5,534) 2. Social security charges 3. Termination indemnities 4. Supplementary benefits (630) (658) 5. Provisions for termination indemnities (459) (457) 6. Provisions for post employment benefits (a) defined contribution plans (b) defined benefit plans (2,638) (2,591) 7. Payments to external pension plans (a) defined contribution plans (b) defined benefit plans 8. Other benefits in favor of employees (546) (889) B. Current Personnel with contracts pursuant to ex art. 10 (1) 1. letter (b) 2. letter (c) 3. letter (d) C. Fees and charges for: 1. Board of Superintendence (504) (796) 2. Directorate (299) (241) 3. Revisori (91) (101) D. Early retirement cost E. Recovery of expenses for employees seconded to other entities F. Reimbursement of expenses for employees of the institutions and organizations of the Holy See and the Vatican City State placed at the Institute Total (10,245) (11,267) 9.2 Average number of employees by categories Type Total Managers Officials Staff Average number 104 2 5 97 Reimbursement of expenses for employees of the institutions and organizations of the Holy See and the Vatican City State placed at the Institute. 9.3 Post employment defined benefit plans: costs and revenues Post employment defined benefit plans: costs 2016 2015 Current Service cost of internal Pension Plan 607 780 Interest cost of internal Pension Plan 2,031 1,811 Post employment costs: contribution to Vatican Pension Plan 630 658 Total Costs 3,268 3,249 Post employment defined benefit plans: revenues Total 3,268 3,249 88 IOR Annual report 2016 9.5 Professional service expenses: detail 2016 2015 A. Professional services expenses 1. Legal services (2,437) (4,552) 2. Directional consultants (718) (1,438) 3. Technical consultants (288) (301) 4. Operational consultants (342) (1,132) 5. Translational services (56) (41) B. Expenses related to works contract 1. ex art. 10 (1) (a) 2. ex art. 11 (1) C. Expenses related to outsourcing contracts D. Expenses related to external auditors (121) (143) Total (3,962) (7,607) 9.6 Other administrative expenses: detail 2016 2015 1. Software maintenances (1,441) (1,247) 2. Other maintenances (800) (592) 3. Local rent (1,000) (1,000) 4. Information providers (379) (483) 5. AIF contribution (346) (230) 6. Other expenses (913) (1,000) Total (4,879) (4,552) ITEM 160 INCOME STATEMENT - NET PROVISION FOR RISKS AND CHARGES Detailed information is provided in Item 130 (b) Liabilities. 89 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 170 INCOME STATEMENT - NET VALUE ADJUSTMENTS TO/RECOVERIES ON TANGIBLE ASSETS 11. Net value adjustments to/recoveries on tangible assets: detail 2016 Depreciation Impairment Recoveries Net losses income (a) (b) (c) (a+b-c) A. Tangible assets A.1 Owned assets - Functional use (83) (83) - For investment A.2 Acquired under finance lease - Functional use - For investment Total (83) (83) 2015 Depreciation Impairment Recoveries Net losses income (a) (b) (c) (a+b-c) A. Tangible assets A.1 Owned assets - Functional use (64) (64) - For investment A.2 Acquired under finance lease - Functional use - For investment Total (64) (64) ITEM 180 INCOME STATEMENT - NET VALUE ADJUSTMENTS TO/RECOVERIES ON INTANGIBLE ASSETS 12. Net value adjustments to/recoveries on intangible assets: detail 2016 Amortization Impairment Recoveries Net losses income (a) (b) (c) (a+b-c) A. Intangible assets A.1 Owned assets - Generated internally by the Institute - Other (683) (683) A.2 Acquired under finance lease Total (683) (683) 2015 Amortization Impairment Recoveries Net losses income (a) (b) (c) (a+b-c) A. Intangible assets A.1 Owned assets - Generated internally by the Institute - Other (512) (512) A.2 Acquired under finance lease Total (512) (512) 90 IOR Annual report 2016 ITEM 190 INCOME STATEMENT – OTHER OPERATING INCOME (EXPENSE) 13.1 Other operating income (expense): detail 2016 2015 A. Income 736 13,720 Extraordinary income 558 120 Recovery of amounts for gold and precious metals 178 Closure of past years issue 13,600 B. Expenses (729) (3,231) 1. Operating losses (715) (54) 2. Extraordinary expenses (14) (324) 3. Impairment of amounts for gold and precious metals (2,853) Total 7 10,489 ITEM 220 INCOME STATEMENT – NET RESULT OF FAIR VALUE VALUATION OF TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE ASSETS 15. Net result of fair value valuation of tangible and intangible assets: detail Exchange differences 2016 Revaluations Impairment Positive Negative Net income (a) (b) (c) (d) (a-b+c-d) A. Tangible assets A.1 Owned assets - Functional use - Held for investment 136 (53) 83 A.2 Acquired under finance lease - Functional use - Held for investment B. Intangible assets B.1 Owned assets B.1.1 Generated internally by the Institute B.1.2 Other B.2 Acquired under finance lease Total 136 (53) 83 Exchange differences 2015 Revaluations Impairment Positive Negative Net income (a) (b) (c) (d) (a-b+c-d) A. Tangible assets A.1 Owned assets - Functional use - Held for investment 517 (16) 501 A.2 Acquired under finance lease - Functional use - Held for investment B. Intangible assets B.1 Owned assets B.1.1 Generated internally by the Institute B.1.2 Other B.2 Acquired under finance lease Total 517 (16) 501 91 IOR Annual report 2016 PART 4. INFORMATION ON COMPREHENSIVE INCOME 2016 Gross Income Net amount tax amount 10. Profit (loss) for the year 36,001 36,001 Other comprehensive income that may not be reclassified to the income statement 20. Tangible assets 30. Intangible assets 40. Defined benefit plans (13,275) (13,275) 50. Non current assets held for sale 60. Share of valuation reserves connected with investments carried at equity Other comprehensive income that may be reclassified to the income statement 70. Hedges of foreign investment (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement (c) other changes 80. Foreign exchange differences (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement (c) other changes 90. Cash flow hedges (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement (c) other changes 100. Financial assets available for sale (a) fair value changes (1,838) (1,838) (b) reclassification to the income statement - impairment losses 148 148 - gains (losses) from disposals (2,589) (2,589) (c) other changes 110. Non current assets held for sale (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement (c) other changes 120. Share of valuation reserves connected with investments carried at equity: (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement - impairment losses - gains (losses) from disposals (c) other changes 130. Total other comprehensive income (17,554) (17,554) Total Comprehensive Income (item 10 + item 130) 18,447 18,447 92 IOR Annual report 2016 2015 Gross Income Net amount tax amount 10. Profit (loss) for the year 16,127 16,127 Other comprehensive income that may not be reclassified to the income statement 20. Tangible assets 30. Intangible assets 40. Defined benefit plans 8,880 8,880 50. Non current assets held for sale 60. Share of valuation reserves connected with investments carried at equity Other comprehensive income that may be reclassified to the income statement 70. Hedges of foreign investment (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement (c) other changes 80. Foreign exchange differences (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement (c) other changes 90. Cash flow hedges (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement (c) other changes 100. Financial assets available for sale (a) fair value changes 4,777 4,777 (b) reclassification to the income statement - impairment losses - gains (losses) from disposals (c) other changes 110. Non current assets held for sale (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement (c) other changes 120. Share of valuation reserves connected with investments carried at equity: (a) fair value changes (b) reclassification to the income statement - impairment losses - gains (losses) from disposals (c) other changes 130. Total other comprehensive income 13,657 13,657 Total Comprehensive Income (item 10 + item 130) 29,784 29,784 93 IOR Annual report 2016 ATTACHMENTS A.1 Disclosure concerning the fees of the independent auditors and services other than auditing During 2016, the IOR did not pay fees to the companies belonging to the network of the audit firm Deloitte & Touche S.p.A. with the exception of those related to the audit of the annual accounts amounting to EUR 121. The fees due are those contractually agreed, inclusive of any indexation and reimbursement of expenses calculated as a forfeit. Fees do not include out-of-pocket expenses or taxes. A.2 Exchange rates as of the balance sheet date The balances at year-end, denominated in foreign currencies, are measured at the exchange rates observed by the European Central Bank on the last working day of the year (in 2016: 30 December). For the other currencies, the rates used are those provided by infoproviders on the same date. For the 2016 financial statements, the rates were determined as follows: Currency 2016 2015 U.S. Dollars USD 1.0541 1.0926 Swiss Francs CHF 1.0739 1.0814 Canadian Dollars CAD 1.4188 1.5171 English Pounds GBP 0.8562 0.7380 Australian Dollars AUD 1.4596 1.4990 Japanese Yen JPY 123.40 131.66 Czech Crowns CZK 27.0210 27.029 Danish Crowns DKK 7.4344 7.4625 Hungarian Forints HUF 309.83 313.15 Norwegian Crowns NOK 9.0863 9.6160 Polish Zloty PLZ 4.4103 4.2400 Swedish Crowns SEK 9.5525 9.1878 Brazilian Reais BRE 3.4305 4.2590 South African Rand ZAR 14.4570 16.8847 Hong Kong Dollars HKD 8.1751 8.4685 South Korean Won KRW 1,224.94 1,284.79 Singapore Dollars SGD 1.5234 1.5449 New Zealand Dollars NZD 1.5158 1.5959 A.3 Date of authorisation for issue The financial statements were presented and authorised for issuance by the Directorate on 27 March 2017 and approved by the Board of Superintendence on 26 April 2017. 94 IOR Annual report 2016 PART 5. INFORMATION ON RISKS AND HEDGING POLICIES 5.1 Introduction The Institute’s policies and procedures for the management and monitoring of risks arising from investments decisions, are summarized in the following paragraphs, with a focus on the parties involved and their responsibilities. The Institute considers it appropriate: a) to assign risk measurement functions and risk integrated control to a specific department, headed by the Risk Management department; b) to assign the functions dedicated to the definition of operating limits, the authorization of possible overruns or payment requests within assigned limits, to the appropriate Risk Committee. Other bodies of the Institute are involved and assigned with different tasks in risk management and monitoring, such as the Board of Superintendence, Directorate, Internal Audit department, Treasury department, Compliance. This structure is based on the rules and the requirements provided by the Financial Information Authority (AIF) for a compliant internal audit system, as defined by Regulation No.1/2015 on “Prudential Supervision of Entities Carrying out financial activities on a professional basis (“Regolamento n.1”), implementing Title III of the Law introducing norms of “Transparency, Supervision and Financial Intelligence” no. XVIII issued on 8 October 2013 (“Law no. XVIII”). The Risk Management function is an independent structure from the risk-taking functions, reporting directly to the Directorate and with functional reporting also to the Board of Superintendence. The following paragraphs set out the rules of the different organizational structures and the governing bodies involved in the monitoring and managingement of risks. 5.1.1 Duties and responsibilities of bodies involved The Institute bodies involved in various capacities in the management and monitoring of risk relating to investment decisions are the following: • Board of Superintendence; • Directorate; • Risk Committee; • Risk Management Department; • Compliance Department; • Internal Audit Department; • Head of Treasury Department; • Investment Committee. 5.1.1.1 Board of Superintendence The Board of Superintendence is responsible for defining the strategic guidelines and general policies for risk management. The Board of Superintendence can request the Directorate to update the guidelines for the measurement and assessment of risks. 5.1.1.2 Directorate The Directorate establishes, the overall strategies, general policies and guidelines set forth by the Board of Superintendence and any amendments thereto, the risk management and monitoring 95 IOR Annual report 2016 methodologies and their implementation and integration proposed by the Risk Committee, and the general structure of market and credit operational limits (counterparty risk and issuer risk). The Directorate also establishes periodically, based on the proposal of the Risk Committee, the limits granted to new trading partners. The Directorate monitors the risk exposure on a daily basis, through reports produced by the Risk Management department, and is informed promptly by the department when operational limits have been exceeded and can request an emergency meeting of the Risk Committee. When operational limits are exceeded, based on a proposal from the Risk Committee, the Directorate determines the way in which the overrun may be managed: a) The Directorate can authorize the overrun specifying the period for which the authorization is granted; b) The Directorate can ask the head of the operating area involved for a recovery plan to be established. The Directorate then authorizes the plan, or can ask for recovery in different ways and/or in different periods than the recovery period proposed. 5.1.1.3 Risk Committee A Risk Committee has been established by the Directorate and chaired by Head of Risk Management department with the aim: • to propose a Risk Appetite Framework and management and control methodologies and all subsequent amendments thereof, in compliance with the general limits set up by RAF; • to propose to the Directorate the general structure of market and credit operational limits (counterparty risk and issuer risk); • to propose periodically to the Directorate credit limits granted to the new trading partners, within the general limits defined in the RAF; • to periodically review the Institute’s risk trend, with specific focus on the most relevant events or those with the greatest impact; • in case of an emergency meeting, where operational limits have been exceeded, to express an opinion to the Directorate on the authorization for exceeding limits, or on the recovery plan arrangements. The organizational aspects of the Risk Committee are disclosed in an appropriate regulation. 5.1.1.4 Risk Management Department The Institute’s Risk Management department: • presents to the Risk Committee issues related to the Institute’s exposure to market, credit, liquidity, operational and reputational risks, proposing methodologies, instruments and processes for the management of those risks; • is responsible for the implementation, validation and maintenance of an adequate risk exposure control system and its performance; • on a daily basis, observes the market, credit and liquidity risks and trading activity performance, preparing specific reports for the Board, the Directorate and the head of Treasury Department; • monitors the compliance with the risk indicators outlined in the Risk Appetite Framework (RAF) approved by the Board of Superintendence, preparing specific reports; • monitors the adherence to operational limits in the Institute’s trading activity, promptly informing the Directorate and the head of Treasury Department of any overruns. When limits are exceeded, it can request an emergency meeting of the Risk Committee; • calculates capital requirements in compliance with legal requirements. 96 IOR Annual report 2016 5.1.1.5 Compliance Department The IOR Compliance Department, in accordance with AIF Regulation No. 1, oversees, using a riskbased approach, management of the risk of non-compliance in corporate activity, ensuring that internal procedures are suitable to prevent such risk. In particular, it is responsible for managing the risk of non-compliance with the most important regulations, such as those relating to financial activity and brokerage, anti-money laundering, and management of conflicts of interest, ensuring that the internal procedures are suitable to mitigate these risks. As regulated by Article 29 of Regulation No. 1, in order to achieve its mission, the Compliance Department: • remains current on the rules applicable to the Institute and its activities and measures/assesses the impact of any changes on existing processes and internal procedures; • verifies compliance with external regulatory requirements and self-regulation; • proposes organizational and procedural changes that ensure adequate supervision of the risk of non-compliance with identified rules; • monitors effectiveness of the suggested organizational changes for prevention of the risk of noncompliance; • prepares direct information flows for the Institute’s governance bodies and for the other concerned functions/structures; • provides advice and assistance to the Institute’s governance bodies for all matters in which the non-compliance risk is relevant as well as collaboration in training personnel on the provisions applicable to their activities. 5.1.1.6 Internal Audit Department The Institute’s Internal Audit department verifies through the audit plan: • the adherence to risk management procedures as established by the Board of Superintendence and by the Directorate, based on a proposal from the Risk Committee; • the adequacy of the risk monitoring tools and procedures related to the Institute’s investment decisions. 5.1.1.7 Head of Treasury Department • Defines the operating investment decisions to be made on financial markets, ensuring consistency with the strategic goals and predetermined limits. • Requests revisions to the assigned operational limits, or the authorization to engage with new counterparties, subject to the review of the Risk Committee. • Defines, within the limits of the authority granted, the necessary corrective actions to restore the defined risk/return profile. 5.1.2 Risk culture and further developments The Institute is involved in a complete overhaul of its current financial, credit, liquidity, reputational and operational risks management programs.This involves the strengthening of the Risk Management department through the acquisition of new skills, the revision of the integrated system of risk measurement and the development of specific frameworks for the management of reputational and operational risks. The approval of a Risk Appetite Framework integrated in the activities of daily risk management 97 IOR Annual report 2016 allows for the development and dissemination of a risk culture, particularly in the functions dedicated to the management of financial risks, which are the main source of risk. The development and implementation of framework dedicated to reputational and operational risks, as well as the focus on the risks of non-compliance, will allow even stronger risk culture across the Institute.These actions, together with the controls already in place on anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism, will complete the system of risk management and monitoring of the Institute. 5.2 Credit risk Format and content of information on credit risk and related hedging policies. 5.2.1 General aspects Credit risk rises from the possibility that counterparties may not honour their commitments. Depending on the nature of those commitments, the Institute’s credit risk may be divided in two categories: a) credit risk arising from the Institute’s trading activity for their own account and on behalf of its clients. Credit risk represents the risk that a counterparty may not fulfill its contractual obligations related to a transaction concerning financial instruments. This risk may be classified into three categories: 1. cash risk (e.g. deposits); 2. issuer risk (e.g. bond purchases); 3. counterparty risk, mainly generated by the operations in Delivery versus Payment (e.g. term operations, repos). b) credit risk arising from loans to customers, classified in the financial statements as “Due from customers”; within this risk category, the Institute considers it appropriate not to measure this risk because: • the item is not material when compared to total assets; • the exposure is limited to Catholic congregations and Vatican employees, both of which have low risk categories by their nature; • credits are usually accompanied by guarantees: securities, asset management or, for the Institute employees, post employment benefits. It is to be mentioned that the Institute is not authorized by the Autorità di Informazione Finanziaria to carry out the activity of “lending” (cfr. art. l (l) (b) of the Law n.XVIII and art. 3 (24) (b) of the Regulation No. l), as credit activities on its own. However, it is authorized to make “advances” that is to disburse funds to its clients and to a limited extent following guarantee of future income (such as, for example, in the case of the advance of salary or pension paid by the Holy See or the Governatorato of Vatican City) or guaranteed by financial assets of the same amount deposited by the clients at the Institute. In general, the main credit risks associated with investment in securities, mainly issued by government entities and bank deposits. Considering the overall interest rates and returns offered, the strategy during 2016 was to focus mainly on issuers and purchases with high returns, considering implicit risks, giving preference to Eurozone government issuers with BBB rating and increasing purchases in USD currency. At the end of 2016, the bond securities portfolio amounted to EUR 2.4bn with an average duration of 1.37 years and high credit standing (99.6% investment grade). The bond securities portfolio is mainly comprised of Italian and Spanish government bonds (45.57% of the total) and bank securities (23.18% of the total). 98 IOR Annual report 2016 Additional details on the bond portfolio composition are provided in the next paragraphs. 5.2.2 Credit risk management policies 5.2.2.1 Organizational aspects The Treasury Department is responsible for the management and monitoring of credit risks over trading activity and collections of amounts due from clients. The Treasury Department is qualified to assume credit risk in compliance with operational limits. Particularly, the process of risk assumption involves the following: • the Director General, delegates the assumption of credit risks to the Treasury Department, within predetermined by amount, type and counterparty; • the Treasury Department, assumes credit risk in its operations in compliance with its defined limits.The assumption of credit risk for amounts greater than the predetermined limit assigned to the department requires the authorisation of the Director General; • the Risk Committee, supporting the Director General in establishing a system ofcredit risk management and monitoring, the definition of operational limits, the analysis of any overruns and in evaluating authorisations of limits exceeded; • the Risk Management Department, daily monitors compliance with operational limits, promptly reporting to the Directorate any unauthorized overruns. 5.2.2.2 Management, measurement and control systems Credit risk monitoring activity is delegated to the Risk Management Department, applying the Institute’s specific-methodology, validated by the Risk Committee and approved by the Director General. This methodology provides, in particular, for the definition of: • a set of determined counterparties with which the Treasury department is allowed to engage with. For each counterparty, the type of risk that the Institute can assume and the maximum amount of exposure are defined; • credit risk quantification criteria for each financial instrument, distinguishing between counterpart risk, issuer risk and cash risk; • add-on quantification criteria to be applied to all contracts with future settlement, diversified by maturity and margining practices. Concerning the maximum amount of exposure to each counterparty, the methodology provides for the use of an internal rating, defined by the characteristics of the counterparty, the rating from International Rating Agencies (Moody’s, S&P, Fitch) and credit spread level quoted in the market (spread on Credit Default Swaps). The use of the credit default swaps spread enables prompt updating of the internal rating and their credit maximum exposure when the market shows signs of difficulties with a determined issuer before these difficulties can lead to a change of the counterparty’s rating. In addition to the limits defined above, the Board of Superintendence defined other limits at trading portfolio level based on a sensitivity spread, distinguishing between government and corporate issuer. The impact of this stress test at the closing date of this financial statements amounting respectively to EUR 18.9m and EUR 18.2m. 5.2.2.3 Credit risk mitigation techniques Currently, the Institute has no offsetting agreements in place with financial counterparties and does not operate in the credit derivatives market. 99 IOR Annual report 2016 5.2.2.4 Non-performing financial assets For amounts due from clients, an internal monitoring system assists the Directorate to determinine if there is objective evidence of the impairment of loans, based on the following criteria established by the Institute: • default in contractual payments of both capital and interest; • delays in payments due to liquidity problems of customers; • deterioration in the value of the guarantees provided. The IOR has also issued guarantees requested by customers covered by assets held in custody, which are disclosed on paragraph 13.1 Part 3. 5.2.3 Credit quality As disclosed in AIF Circular, the use of the term “credit exposures” excludes equity securities and UCI units. The use of the term “exposures” includes equity securities and UCI units. 1 Performing and non-performing credit exposures: amounts, adjustments, changes, economic and geographical detail 1.1 Detail of credit exposures by portfolio classification and credit quality (book values) Bad loans Unlikely Non performing Performing Other to pay past due past due performing Total exposures exposures exposures 1. Financial assets available for sale 2. Financial assets held to maturity 558,956 558,956 3. Due from banks 643,229 643,229 4. Due from customers 7,469 764 71 20,848 29,152 5. Financial assets carried at fair value 6. Financial assets being disposed Total 2016 7,469 764 71 1,223,033 1,231,337 Total 2015 7,718 2,278 681 1,334,464 1,345,141 Note: There are no forborne exposures. The amount of past due exposures (EUR 71,000) has remained the same for more than 1 year. Based on the analysis of debtors at the balance sheet date, there was no objective evidence of potential insolvency of the customer and no impairment loss was recognized. 1.2 Detail of credit exposures by portfolio classification and credit quality (gross and net values) Non-performing assets Performing assets Gross Individual Net Gross Collective Net Total exposure adjustments exposure exposure adjustments exposure (net exposure) 1. Financial assets available for sale 2. Financial assets held to maturity 558,956 558,956 558,956 3. Due from banks 643,229 643,229 643,229 4. Due from customers 24,842 (16,609) 8,233 21,541 (622) 20,919 29,152 5. Financial assets carried at fair value 6. Financial assets being disposed Total 2016 24,842 (16,609) 8,233 1,223,726 (622) 1,223,104 1,231,337 Total 2015 25,344 (15,348) 9,996 1,335,825 (680) 1,335,145 1,345,141 100 IOR Annual report 2016 Assets of evidently low credit Other assets Cumulated capital losses Net exposure Net exposure 1. Financial assets held for trading 1,831,693 2. Hedging derivatives Total 2016 1,831,693 Total 2015 1,563,528 1.3 On- and off-balance sheet credit exposures to banks: gross and net values and past due brackets Type of exposure/value Gross exposure Non-performing assets Up to 3 3-6 6-12 Over Performing Individual Collective Net months months months 1 year assets adjust- adjust- exposure ments ments A. On balance sheet exposures a) Bad loans - of which: forborne exposures b) Unlikely to pay - of which: forborne exposures c) Non-performing past due exposures - of which: forborne exposures d) Performing past due exposures - of which: forborne exposures e) Other performing exposures 1,197,481 1,197,481 - of which: forborne exposures Total A 1,197,481 1,197,481 B. Off-balance sheet exposure a) Non performing b) Performing Total B Total A + B 1,197,481 1,197,481 On-balance sheet exposures include all on-balance sheet financial assets claimed from banks, irrespective of their portfolio of allocation. 101 IOR Annual report 2016 1.7 On- and off-balance sheet credit exposures to customers: gross and net values and aging Type of exposure/value Gross exposure Non-performing assets Up to 3 3-6 6-12 Over Performing Individual Collective Net months months months 1 year assets adjust- adjust- exposure ments ments A. On balance sheet exposures a) Bad loans 9,876 (9,876) - of which: forborne exposures b) Unlikely to pay 12,098 (4,629) 7,469 - of which: forborne exposures c) Non-performing past due exposures 2,868 (2,104) 764 - of which: forborne exposures d) Performing past due exposures 76 (5) 71 - of which: forborne exposures e) Other performing exposures 1,857,863 (617) 1,857,246 - of which: forborne exposures Total A 24,842 1,857,939 (16,609) (622) 1,865,550 B. Off balance sheet exposure a) Non performing b) Other 42 42 Total B Total A + B 24,842 1,857,981 (16,609) (622) 1,865,592 On-balance sheet exposures include all on-balance sheet financial assets claimed from customers, irrespective of their portfolio of allocation. 1.8 On-balance sheet credit exposures to customers: changes in gross non-performing exposures Bad loans Unlikely Non-performing to pay past due exposures A. Initial gross exposures 6,853 12,500 5,991 - of which: exposures sold not derecognised B. Increases B.1 inflows from performing exposures B.2 transfers from other non-performing exposure categories 3,090 B.3 other increases 178 72 C. Decreases C.1 outflows toward performing exposures C.2 write-offs C.3 repayments (245) (402) (105) C.4 credit disposals C.5 losses from disposals C.6 transfers to other non-performing exposure categories (3,090) C.7 other decreases D. Final gross exposures 9,876 12,098 2,868 - of which: exposures sold not derecognised 102 IOR Annual report 2016 1.10 On-balance sheet non performing credit exposures to customers: changes in total adjustments Reason / Categories Bad loans Unlikely to pay Non performing past due exposures Total of which: Total of which Total of which forborne forborne forborne exposures exposures exposures A. Initial total adjustments 6,853 4,782 3,713 - of which: exposures sold not derecognised B. Increases B.1 impairment losses 762 691 B.2 losses on disposal B.3 transfers from other non performing exposure categories 2,290 B.4 other increases 258 53 C. Decreases C.1 recoveries on impairment losses (153) C.2 recoveries on repayments (287) (63) C.3 profits on disposal C.4 write-offs C.5 transfers to other non-performing exposure categories C.6 other decreases (2,290) D. Final total adjustments 9,876 4,629 2,104 - of which: exposures sold not derecognised 2 Classification of exposures based on external and internal ratings 2.1 Detail off and on-balance sheet credit exposures by external rating class Exposures External rating classes Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5 Class 6 Unrated Total A. On balance sheet exposures 623,780 697,578 1,588,979 10,277 20,873 121,544 3,063,031 B. Derivatives B.1 Financial derivatives B.2 Credit derivatives C. Guarantees given 42 42 D. Commitments to lend funds E. Other Total 623,780 697,578 1,588,979 10,277 20,873 121,586 3,063,073 For the analysis of the credit risk of the borrowers / guarantors, the Institute use S&P rating; when S&P are not available, the Institute utilizes the equivalent value from the Moody’s rating agency. In the preparation of the above table S&P ratings have been used. Below a reconciliation between risk classes and the S&P ratings: Class 1 – from AAA to AAClass 2 – from A+ to AClass 3 – from BBB+ to BBBClass 4 – from BB+ to BBClass 5 – from B+ to BClass 6 – Others 103 IOR Annual report 2016 3 Detail of guaranteed credit exposures by type of guarantee 3.2 Guaranteed credit exposures to customers 1.Guaranteed on balance sheet credit exposures 1.1 totally guaranteed 451 451 451 - of which non performing 1.2 Partly guaranteed - of which non performing 2. Guaranteed off-balance sheet credit exposures 2.1 Totally guaranteed - of which non performing Partly guaranteed - of which non performing 104 IOR Annual report 2016 Total (1)+(2) Other entities Banks Other Public Entities Governments and Central Banks Other entities Banks Other Public Entities Governments and Central Banks Credit Linked Notes Other real guarantees Securities Real estate assets - financial lease Real estate assets - mortgages Net exposure Real collateral (1) Guarantees (2) Credit derivatives Other derivatives Credit commitments 5.2.4 Distribution and concentration of credit exposures 1. Detail by sector of on-balance and off-balance sheet credit exposures to customers (book value) Due to the change in accounting system, the data for 2015 were too heavy to be extracted and barely relevant in comparison to the information provided. 105 IOR Annual report 2016 A. On balance sheet exposures A.1 Bad loans 9,876 - of which forborne exposures A.2 Unlikely to pay 7,469 4,629 - of which forborne exposures A.3 Non-performing past due exposures 764 2,104 - of which forborne exposures A.4 Performing exposures 8,290 1,354,046 237,021 9,286 239,360 9,315 622 - of which forborne exposures TOTAL A 8,290 1,354,046 237,021 9,286 239,360 17,548 16,609 622 B. Off-balance sheet exposures B.1 Bad loans B.2 Unlikely to pay B.3 Other non-performing assets B.4 Other exposures 42 TOTAL B 42 TOTAL (A+B) 2016 8,290 1,354,046 237,021 9,286 239,360 17,590 16,609 622 TOTAL (A+B) 2015 Net exposure Individual adjustments Portfolio adjustments Net exposure Individual adjustments Portfolio adjustments Net exposure Individual adjustments Portfolio adjustments Net exposure Individual adjustments Portfolio adjustments Net exposure Individual adjustments Portfolio adjustments Net exposure Individual adjustments Portfolio adjustments Net exposure Individual adjustments Portfolio adjustments Net exposure Individual adjustments Portfolio adjustments Net exposure Individual adjustments Portfolio adjustments Public Authorities Domestic Foreign Public Sector Foreign Private Sector Foreign Public Authorities Regional - Local Public Authorities International Public Authorities Other Public Entities Financial companies Insurance companies Non financial companies Other companies 2. Detail by geographical area of on- and off-balance sheet credit exposures to customers (book value) Exposures / Geographical areas Domestic European Countries America Asia Rest of the world Net Total Net Total Net Total Net Total Net e Total exposure adjustments exposure adjustments exposure adjustments exposure adjustments exposure adjustments A. On balance sheet exposures A.1 Bad loans 9,876 (9,876) A.2 Unlikely to pay 12,098 (4,629) A.3 Non performing past due exposures 2,868 (2,104) A.4 Performing exposures 8,326 (2) 1,576,148 (615) 217,127 (2) 50,415 5,923 (2) Total A 8,326 (2) 1,600,990 (17,224) 217,127 (2) 50,415 5,923 (2) B. Off balance sheet exposures B.1 Bad loans B.2 Unlikely to pay B.3 Other non-performing assets B.4 Performing exposures 42 Total B 42 Total A+B 2016 8,326 (2) 1,601,032 (17,224) 217,127 (2) 50,415 5,923 (2) Total A+B 2015 Due to the change in accounting system, the data for 2015 were too heavy to be extracted and barely relevant in comparison to the information provided. 3. Detail by geographical area of on- and off-balance sheet credit exposures to banks (book value) Exposures / Geographical areas Domestic European Countries America Asia Rest of the world Net Total Net Total Net Total Net Total Net e Total exposure adjustments exposure adjustments exposure adjustments exposure adjustments exposure adjustments A. On balance sheet exposures A.1 Bad loans A.2 Unlikely to pay A.3 Non performing past due exposures A.4 Performing exposures 976,812 148,537 1,396 70,736 Total A 976,812 148,537 1,396 70,736 B. Off balance sheet exposures B.1 Bad loans B.2 Unlikely to pay B.3 Other non-performing assets B.4 Performing exposures Total B Total A+B 2016 976,812 148,537 1,396 70,736 Total A+B 2015 Due to the change in accounting system, the data for 2015 were too heavy to be extracted and barely relevant in comparison to the information provided. 4. Large exposures IOR has no large exposures as defined by art. 46 of AIF Regulation No. 1. 106 IOR Annual report 2016 5.2.5 Securitisation No securitisation transactions were made by the IOR. 5.2.6 Information on unconsolidated structured entities For unconsolidated structured entities, the Institute considers the shares held in externally managed investment funds. For some external funds, the Institute is the owner of a significant number of shares, but does not control these funds because, it does not participate in investment decisions, either directly or indirectly, and it does not hold the ability to affect the returns of the above-mentioned funds. The information required by IFRS 12 on the unconsolidated structured entities is below. As of the balance sheet date, the Institute holds EUR 33.7m in investments in external funds in its trading portfolio. Dividends collected in 2016 on such funds amount to EUR 812,000 (EUR 800,000 in 2015). 70% of the funds in the portfolio are closed-ended funds, and can be subscribed to only at given times by specific parties, who, as mentioned, have no control and the remaining 30% of funds are related to funds that can be subscribed to by different entities at any time and for any amount (openended funds). Conversely, with regard to their asset classes, funds held by the Institute invest in equity securities (30%), debt securities (30%) and the real estate market (40%). Regarding geographical distribution, the criteria used in the above mentioned table was used to separate funds based on their legally registered domicile. According to those criterion, all of the funds are located within the European Union. 107 IOR Annual report 2016 2016 2015 Balance sheet exposure Balance sheet exposure Nominal Value Carrying amount Nominal Value Carrying amount Investment Fund type Open-end fund 75,160 10,404 38,499 5,387 Closed-end fund 20,170,677 13,333 20,170,677 23,357 Hedge fund Exchange traded fund Unit Investment Trust Fund of fund 2,300 9,944 2,300 12,585 Seed Fund Total 20,248,137 33,681 20,211,476 41,329 Underlying asset class focus Equity 2,300 9,944 2,300 12,585 Debt 75,160 10,404 38,499 5,387 Asset Allocation Money Market Real Estate 20,170,000 13,311 20,170,000 23,333 Commodity Alternative Investments 677 22 677 24 Total 20,248,137 33,681 20,211,476 41,329 Geographical Area UE 20,248,137 33,681 20,211,476 41,329 USA Total 20,248,137 33,681 20,211,476 41,329 At the balance sheet date, the IOR did not provide any guidance to unconsolidated structured entities on their investment policies. The Institute has not sponsored any unconsolidated structured entities. At the balance sheet date, the Institute had a standing commitment to one of these funds to third parties of EUR 4m. SGIR is 100% owned by IOR.The Institute does not prepare consolidated financial statements because the resulting information would not be relevant to the readers of the financial statements.The total balance sheet assets of the subsidiary are insignificant when compared with those of the Institute and, accordingly, the consolidated financial statements would not differ significantly from these financial statements. 5.2.7 Models for the measurement of credit risk For the credit risk measurement, the Institute adopted the standard methodology defined by AIF Regulation No. 1, articles 63-89. No individual and portfolio internal models are used. 5.3 Market risks Format and content of information on market risk and relative hedging policies 108 IOR Annual report 2016 5.3.1 Interest rate risk and trading portfolio price risk 5.3.1.1 General aspects Interest rate risk related to the trading portfolio is derived from the Institute’s trading activity in financial instruments, simple and complex, exchanged on organized markets and over-the-counter markets, put in place by the Treasury department. This risk pertains to positions in bonds, particularly those based on a fixed rate, the value of which is closely linked to the trend in interest rates. In line with the objectives of the Treasury Department in liquidity management and capital, and in line with the Institute’s threshold for risk, the level of risk in the trading portfolio is rather low, as indicated by the short holding period (1.37 years). In anticipation of an increase in interest rates, the Institute has further reduced the overall holding period in order to mitigate any negative impact on the value of the portfolio. Price risk comes from the exposure on equity securities, ETF and funds. The Institute reduced the threshold for such risk and exposures come mainly from the need to obtain a diversified return on own equity, in a period characterized by low interest rates. 5.3.1.2 Operating procedures and methods for measuring interest rate risk and price risk Interest rate risk and price risk are measured and managed as part of the overall management and monitoring of risk. Market risk is the risk of change in portfolio value from adverse fluctuations in market parameters, such as interest or currency rates, equity prices or prices of commodities underlying derivative contracts. The Institute’s trading portfolio is comprised mainly of bond securities, and the main associated risks are interest rate and LIBOR spread variation risk, as further described in the next paragraphs. The power to assume market risk lies with the Directorate, which plays an active role in risk management and monitoring, according to the guidelines issued by the Board of Superintendence. Specifically, the Director General delegates the assumption of market risk and management to the Treasury department that operates autonomously in accordance with the limits assigned to the department. Market risk assumption and management is separate from the confirmation, settlement, matching and execution (Back Office) and of the Risk Management department. At 31 December 2016, the Institute did not hold quoted derivatives. A project analysing future interest rates is being performed, with the goal of providing an instrument for hedging the interest rate risk of the bond portfolio. The system of measurement of financial risks and the establishment of operational limits of the Institute are based on the use of statistic calculation tools. Specifically, the three measures of potential loss are: Value at Risk, Expected Shortfall and Stress Test. These measures are defined as follows: • Value at Risk (VaR) is defined as the maximum loss that the Institute could withstand, with probability equal to predetermined confidence levels, in the case of adverse market trends to the position taken; • Expected Shortfall is defined as the average loss that the Institute could withstand in case of a VaR overrun; • StressTest is defined as the loss that the Institute could withstand in case of negative events impacting main risk indicators (equity prices and indexes, interest rates, currency rates, credit spread) analyzed independently and as established by the RAF. 109 IOR Annual report 2016 In addition to the aforementioned measures, the Institute utilises an indicator of realized losses on a 10-day time horizon, defined as the sum of the negative results realized on closed positions and unrealized losses on open positions, valued at market, with reference to the last five working days. The VaR and the Expected Shortfall are calculated using the historic method (at least one year of data and quarterly update of the scenarios), with a daily timeline and confidence level at 99%. The StressTests are calculated by simulating extreme scenarios of the main risk factors, starting from the worst movements recorded in the history of the world’s financial markets, as further described in the following paragraphs. In particular: • for interest rate risk, the variations in interest rates that make up the market curve, the rate volatility risk and correlation risk. On a daily basis, stress test analyses are conducted on the rates curve, assuming substantial shifts of the curve (-40% / +50% with a floor equal to 50 basis points); • for LIBOR spread variation risk, the stress scenarios consider increases depending on the absolute spread level: more precisely, these are set equal to -20/+40 bps for securities with a spread lower than Libor, -40/+80 bps for securities with a spread between 0 and 100 bps and - 40%/+80% of the spread for securities with a spread above 100 bps; • for price risk, different categories of instruments are adequately presented: equities securities, equities indexes, funds and ETF. A stress test analysis is then conducted, applying the defined scenarios to spot prices (from -30% to +30%). Monitoring compliance with limits on a daily basis is performed by the Risk Management department, which provides daily updates to the Directorate on the level of risk assumed and compliance with operational limits. When operational limits have been exceeded, the Risk Management department promptly informs the Directorate of the overrun and the Director General decides on the appropriate action. In establishing a system of market risk measurement, definition of operational limits, and the monitoring of compliance with the limits, the Director General is supported by the Risk Committee, who serves as an advisor on the following matters: • assignment and review limits for of VaR, Expected Shortfall, Stress Test and WCL to the Treasury department; • assignment of additional limits, determined based on nominal sensitivity factor (portfolio sensitivity to the single risk factors), etc; • periodical trend analysis of the Institute’s risk position and identification of the root causes of the unusual trends; • monitoring risks assumed and compliance with the pre-established limits; • total or partial disruption of the activities in certain sensitive financial instruments to risk factors; • analysis of the ordinary and extraordinary events, following particular market turbulences and macroeconomic scenarios. During 2016 the Institute maintained a prudential approach in the management of financial risks. Specifically, during the year, the held for trading portfolio had a daily average VaR of EUR 4.92m, a daily maximum VaR of EUR 6.2m and a daily minimum VaR of EUR 3.72m; the operational limits calculated on 10 working days, determined as EUR 25m under RAF, was never exceeded. At the end of 2016, the VaR amounted to EUR 11.0m. The portfolio only contained highly liquid products. The Risk Management department, to verify the adequacy of the VaR calculation, periodically con- 110 IOR Annual report 2016 ducts retrospective reviews, comparing the actual trading results achieved, with the VaR measures previously calculated. During 2016, the Institute did not identify events where actual daily losses exceeded the risk measures expressed in terms of VaR on a daily basis. The potential impact of a shock of +/- 100 basis point on the portfolio held for trading could have an impact of EUR 24.9m, representing 56.49%, 69.19% and 3.70% of interest margin, profit for the year and equity, respectively. Stress test data at the end of 2016 shows, for interest rate risk, an exposure equal to EUR 12.7m for a variation of +50% of interest rates, with a minimum variation of 50 basis points; the exposure is focused on the EUR rate risk for 70% and on USD rate risk for the remaining 30%. The management and monitoring of risk is continuously improving, and the project related to implementation of the new system by theTreasury department is under completion; when completed, the project will allow: • monitoring of positions, profits and risks real time (automatic feed of main risk parameters and continuous revaluation of the position, calculation of the VaR position at any time of the day); • possibility of monitoring P&L trend and risks in different aggregation levels, from the single instrument, to the entire position of the Treasury department. 2.1 Trading portfolio: detail by maturity date (re-pricing date) of financial assets and liabilities on balance sheet and financial derivatives Type / Expiration date On Up to 3 3-6 6-12 1-5 5-10 Over Non demand months months months years years 10 years defined A. Cash assets 1.1 Debt securities - with early redemption option 70,199 3,392 - other 729,708 295,561 80,132 589,870 55,488 515 1.2 Other assets 2. Cash liabilities 2.1 Repurchase agreements 2.2 Other liabilities 3. Financial derivatives 3.1 With underlying security - Options + Long positions + Short positions - Other derivatives + Long positions + Short positions 3.2 Without underlying security - Options + Long positions + Short positions - Other derivatives + Long positions + Short positions 111 IOR Annual report 2016 2.2 Trading portfolio: detail of equity securities and index exposures for the main countries quoted markets Type / Quotation index Quoted Italian NYSE Xetra New NASDAQ Other Non Stock Arca York GS quoted Exchange A. Equity securities - long positions 23,002 10,515 7,441 3,833 3,330 4,609 - short positions B. Transactions not yet settled on equity securities - long positions - short positions C. Other derivatives on equity securities - long positions - short positions D. Derivatives on equity index - long positions - short positions With reference to price risk of other financial instruments classified as held for trading, at the end of 2016, the Institute’s portfolio had the following exposure: • Closed-end funds EUR 23,3m; • Open-end funds EUR 10,4m. 112 IOR Annual report 2016 5.3.2 Interest rate risk and price risk of other financial instruments in portfolio 2.1 Other financial instruments in portfolio: detail by expiration date (re-pricing date) of financial assets and liabilities Type / Expiration date On Up to 3 3-6 6-12 1-5 5-10 Over Non demand months months months years years 10 years defined 1. Cash assets 1.1 Debt securities - with early redemption option 10,020 - other 24,280 231,679 75,436 168,784 48,757 1.2 Loans to banks 457,624 100,006 60,548 25,052 1.3 Loans to customers - current accounts 8,452 - other loans - with early redemption option 13,527 - other 7,174 2. Cash liabilities 2.1 Due to customers - current accounts 2,397,688 - other liabilities - with early redemption option - other 855 382 2.2 Due to banks - current accounts - other liabilities 2.3 Debt securities - with early redemption option - other 2.4 Other liabilities - with early redemption option - other 3. Financial derivatives 3.1 With underlying security - Options + Long positions + Short positions - Other derivatives + Long positions + Short positions 3.2 Without underlying security - Options + Long positions + Short positions - Other derivatives + Long positions + Short positions 4. Other off balance sheet transactions + Long positions + Short positions Regarding interest rate risk for financial instruments other than those classified as trading, the Institute’s exposure refers mainly to the assets classified as held to maturity and to interbank deposits, already listed in the paragraph related to credit risk. 113 IOR Annual report 2016 The application of a variation of interest rates of +/- 100 basis points to the portfolio, including other financial instruments (EUR 559m) shows a potential impact of EUR 8.65m, representing 19.62%, 24.03% and 1.29% of interest margin, profit for the year and equity, respectively. With reference to price risk of financial instruments not classified as trading, at the end of 2016, the Institute’s portfolio had the following exposure: • Financial assets available for sale EUR 6,7m; • Investment in subsidiaries SGIR S.r.l. EUR 15,8m. Regarding the limits, the Board of Superintendence established limits for the investment in financial assets held to maturity in relation to equity. For this portfolio a measure of VaR is also calculated (respectively EUR 0.74m, 0.97m and 2.23m of minimum, medium and maximum daily value), but not associated with limits. 5.3.3 Currency risk General aspects, operating procedures and methods for measuring currency risk Currency risk is the risk that the Institute can incur losses on the portfolio held for trading due to the adverse variation of currency rates and the price of gold. As mentioned above, the management of currency risk is based on the system in place for the management of financial risks. For the currency rate, as it was for interest rates, the following pre-defined StressTest scenarios were used for each currency providing shock higher for minorcurrencies and for those not related to Euro. The potential impact of these shocks could result in loss of approximately EUR 2.8m. 2.1 Detail by currency of financial assets, liabilities and derivatives Currencies USD GBP CAD AUD CHF Other Items currencies A. Financial assets A.1 Debt securities 581,767 2,373 471 1,894 3,986 226 A.2 Equity securities 31,189 684 7 6 A.3 Loans to banks 55,625 16,320 8,716 7,237 146 6,123 A.4 Loans to customers 17 A.5 Other financial assets 7,561 127 959 353 1,145 1,173 B. Other assets 21,715 C. Financial liabilities C.1 Due to banks C.2 Due to customers 664,165 13,213 5,036 7,007 9,506 2,414 C.3 Debt securities C.4 Other financial liabilities 3,049 42 907 2 5 D. Other liabilities E. Financial derivatives - Options + Long positions + Short positions - Other derivatives + Long positions + Short positions Total Assets 697,874 19,404 10,146 9,484 5,284 7,528 Total Liabilities 667,214 13,255 5,943 7,009 9,511 2,414 Difference (+/-) 30,660 6,149 4,203 2,475 (4,227) 5,114 114 IOR Annual report 2016 The exchange rate risk exposure resulting from the application of the abovementioned stress tests of 100 basis point at 31 December 2016 resulted in an amount equal to EUR 0.45m, representing 1.02%, 1.25% and 0.07% of interest margin, profit for the year and equity, respectively. For capital requirement calculation related to currency risk, the IOR adopted the standard methodology provided by AIF Regulation No. 1. 5.3.4 Derivative instruments In 2016 IOR did not hold derivative financial instruments. 5.4 Liquidity risk Format and content of information on liquidity risk and relative hedging policies 5.4.1 General aspects, operating procedures and methods for measuring liquidity risk Liquidity risk is the risk that the Institute will encounter difficulties in meeting payment obligations by cash or by expected or unexpected delivery, compromising the daily operations or the financial situation. Regarding liquidity risk, during 2016, the IOR did not encounter any notable problems: starting from January 2016, the liquidity risk measurement methodologies have been defined according to the provisions of AIF Regulation No. 1; the liquidity risk indicator (LCR), calculated over a period of 30 days, resulted in a value equal to 395.4%, well above the regulatory limit of 200% established by RAF. It is important to note that Institute liabilities are represented, other than equity, by deposits from customers, mainly on demand. Moreover the Institute does not carry out funding transactions on the interbank market or on the capital market. From an organizational standpoint, the Institute’s liquidity risk is managed by theTreasury Department which monitors the expected and realized flows in currencies and maintains an adequate portfolio of liquid assets to meet any unexpected payments. Monitoring of liquidity and adherence to liquidity operating limits are performed daily by the Risk Management Department. The following tables show the Institute’s assets and liabilities with current values, divided by contractual maturities of the financial liabilities and the expected maturities of the financial assets. The first table includes only financial assets and liabilities in Euro, while the second table comprises only financial assets and liabilities in other currency than Euro. 115 IOR Annual report 2016 1.1 Detail by contractual residual maturity of financial assets and liabilities in Euro On 1-7 7-15 15-30 1-3 3-6 6-12 1-5 Over 5 Non Type / Residual maturity demand days days days months months months years years defined Cash assets B.1 Government bonds 31 5,457 52,298 151,027 166,128 939,595 B.2 Other debt securities 1 7,820 13,416 20,008 204,681 136,914 480,608 B.3 UCI units 33,681 B.4 Loans - Banks 363,455 80,000 20,006 60,548 25,052 - Customers 8,436 37 7 57 3,980 4,857 11,762 Cash liabilities B.5 Deposits and current accounts - Banks - Customers 1,697,582 B.6 Debt securities B.7 Other liabilities Off balance sheet transactions B.8 Financial derivatives with exchange of capital - long positions - short positions B.9 Financial derivatives without exchange of capital - long positions - short positions B.10 Deposits and loans to be settled - long positions - short positions B.11 Irrevocable commitments to lend funds - long positions - short positions B.12 Financial guarantees given B.13 Financial guarantees received B.14 Credit derivatives with exchange of capital - long positions - short positions B.15 Credit derivatives without exchange of capital - long positions - short positions 116 IOR Annual report 2016 1.2 Detail by contractual residual maturity of financial assets and liabilities in other currency than Euro On 1-7 7-15 15-30 1-3 3-6 6-12 1-5 Over 5 Non Type / Residual maturity demand days days days months months months years years defined Cash assets B.1 Government bonds 159 1 27 331 25,906 61,607 3,339 B.2 Other debt securities 89 161 12,243 25,870 9,221 30,114 B.3 UCI units B.4 Loans - Banks 94,168 - Customers 17 Cash liabilities B.5 Deposits and current accounts - Banks - Customers 700,105 649 206 382 B.6 Debt securities B.7 Other liabilities Off balance sheet transactions B.8 Financial derivatives with exchange of capital - long positions - short positions B.9 Financial derivatives without exchange of capital - long positions - short positions B.10 Deposits and loans to be settled - long positions - short positions B.11 Irrevocable commitments to lend funds - long positions - short positions B.12 Financial guarantees given B.13 Financial guarantees received B.14 Credit derivatives with exchange of capital - long positions - short positions B.15 Credit derivatives without exchange of capital - long positions - short positions 5.5 Operational risk Format and content of information on operational risk and relative hedging policies 5.5.1 General aspects, operating procedures and methods for measuring operational risk Operational risks represent the risk of loss caused by inadequate and failure of processes, human resources and internal system, or caused by external events. Operational risk does not include strategic and reputational risks, but includes legal risk, which is 117 IOR Annual report 2016 the risk of loss from violations of laws and regulations, contractual or non-contractual liability, or other disputes. Operational risks include, among other things, administrative risk (for example, absence or inadequacy of line controls), human resources risk (for example, a lack of professional training for staff), and IT risk (for example, inadequacy of the computer system that could cause loss of data or interruption of operations). The Institute is defining a framework for operational risk management, establishing the organizational processes for measurement, management and control of that risk. More specifically, the risk assessment framework for the Institute’s activities provides an assessment of the operational risk of each process (unmitigated risk), a verification of the tools for monitoring and mitigation of this risk and an assessment of the residual risks (mitigated risk). Definition of a framework for the recognition of operational risk events is also under analysis, which will include an Institute database which such events and the mitigating actions taken will be input. “Operational risk event” is an event of any nature that “potentially” may generate a loss for the Institute, and not only events that have caused an actual loss. Generally, these events do not generate losses, but it is important to record them to highlight possible areas of exposure to a high number of events.The Institute has to take action with regard to these events with organizational changes (when there are problems with the processes), technological changes (when there are technical problems) and/or training changes (when there are problems related to human errors). This activity allows the Institute to mitigate the risk that these events, if repeated in the future, can generate real losses. For compliance with the Regulation No. 1, the business lines will be directly involved in the Operational Risk Management process, through the establishment of specifically in the collection and classification of data about events that have generated operating losses, and the risk assessment associated with the operating environment. From an organizational point of view, the monitoring of the Institute’s operational risks will be managed by an Operational Risk Management (ORM) unit, located within the IOR Risk Management department.The ORM will be responsible for development of methodologies for risk measurement and the processing of loss data, and will also responsible for the preparation of reporting tools. The ORM will promptly inform the Directorate of the most significant operational events, and will prepare a periodical report analyzing the trend in operational risks, events that have occurred, and the actions taken to resolve the main critical issues. Extraordinary losses and operating losses have been recorded during 2016 for a total amount of EUR 729,000, of which around EUR 250,000 related to external transactions not authorized (credit cards and payment services). In this regard, corrective measures have been taken to prevent such events from happening again in the future. In addition, negative accounting reconciliation was recorded for approximately EUR 386,000 related to the customers assets (or securities) deposited with third parties, of which the Institute decided to cover. Finally, there is a provision to risks and charges item amounting to EUR 3.5m related to probable contingencies related to tax issues towards foreign countries, decreasing from the previous year. 118 IOR Annual report 2016 PART 6. INFORMATION CONCERNING EQUITY 6.1 Shareholders’ Equity 6.1.1 Qualitative information The Institute’s equity represents capital funding provided by the owner or generated by the business to create value. In managing capital (a broader concept than “equity” presented in the balance sheet and consistent with regulatory capital, which is not comprised solely of equity in the strict sense), the Institute’s objectives are: • to safeguard the Institute’s ability to continue as a going concern, so that it can continue to provide benefits for all stakeholders; • to maintain a strong capital base to support business growth. The Institute pursues its objectives of capital management during the planning processes, through the analysis of risks associated with planned activities, and during the monitoring processes through the analysis and monitoring compliance with limits. In managing capital, the Institute observes regulatory capital requirements established by the regulatory framework related to prudential supervision. 6.1.2 Quantitative information 1 Detail 2016 2015 1. Capital 300,000 300,000 2. Reserves (a) Earning reserves (i) Unavailable 100,000 100,000 (ii) Available 282,134 282,134 (iii) Other (b) Other 3. Equity instruments 4. Valuation reserves (a) Available for sale assets 499 4.777 (b) Tangible assets (c) Intangible assets (d) Hedging of foreign investments (e) Cash flows hedging (f) Exchange differences (g) Non current assets held for sale (h) Actuarial gains (losses) on defined benefit plans (46,034) (32,759) (i) Share of valuation reserves connected with investments carried at equity 5. Profit (loss) for the year 36,001 16,127 Total 672,600 670,278 Capital, clearly identified as a component of Equity, represents a permanent endowment that cannot be reduced or distributed, except in case of cessation or liquidation of the entity. 119 IOR Annual report 2016 Unavailable Reserves are profit reserves designed to further strengthen theInstitute’s Equity and longterm stability. Available or “distributable” Reserves are earnings available for distribution, subject to a resolution of the Commission of Cardinals. Fair Value Reserves for available for sale securities represents the net fair value gain/loss recognized on investment securities classified as available for sale. Post-employment benefit actuarial gain (loss) Reserves represents the actuarial unrealised gain or loss related to the post-employment benefit plans. 2 Fair value reserve of financial assets available for sale: detail 2016 2015 Positive Reserve Negative Reserve Positive Reserve Negative Reserve 1. Debt securities 2. Equity securities 499 4,777 3. UCI units 4. Loans Total 499 4,777 3 Fair value reserve of financial assets available for sale: annual changes Debt securities Equity securities UCI units Loans 1. Opening balance 4,777 2. Positive changes 2.1 Fair value increases 112 2.2 Reclassification from negative reserves to the Income statement: From Impairment 148 From disposal 2.3 Other changes 3. Negative changes 3.1 Fair value decreases (1,949) 3.2 Impairment 3.3 Reclassification from positive reserves to the Income statement: From disposal (2,589) 3.4 Other changes 4. Closing balance 499 4 Valuation reserves related to defined benefit plans: annual changes Defined benefit plan 1. Opening balance (32,759) 2. Positive changes 2.1 Post-employment benefit actuarial gain of the year 3. Negative changes 3.1 Post-employment benefit actuarial loss of the year (13,275) 4. Closing balance (46,034) 120 IOR Annual report 2016 6.2 Own equity and prudential supervision ratios 1 Own equity 2016 2015 A. Positive components 1. Capital 300,000 300,000 2. Supplemental Capital Retained earnings (i) Unavailable 100,000 100,000 (ii) Available 282,134 282,134 (iii) Others Provisions Reserves (45,535) (27,981) 3. Positive prudential filter IAS/IFRS B. Negative components 1. Goodwill 2. Intangible assets (1,044) (875) 3. Impairments on loans 4. Losses recognized in previous years and in current year 5. Regulatory downs of assets carried at fair value 6. Negative prudential filter IAS/IFRS (250) (2,389) Common Equity 635,305 650,888 Capital is defined by AIF Regulation No.1 art. 3 (8) as the initial funding or subsequent integration of capital by the Holy See or the Vatican City State. a. it is paid in pursuant to the legislation of the Holy See and the Vatican City State; b. it is clearly and distinctly identified in the financial statements; c. it cannot be reduced or distributed, except in the case of cessation or liquidation of the entity, ensuring that it is distributed proportionality to legitimate creditors, according to the legislation of the Holy See and the Vatican City State and acquired by the Apostolic See. For regulatory purposes, the term “Capital” shall be considered as equivalent to “core capital”. The Supplemental Capital is defined under AIF Regulation No. 1 art. 3 (68) as the sum of retained earnings, accumulated as other comprehensive income and other reserves. The Common Equity is defined under Regulation No. 1, art. 3 (12) as: – the sum of the following positive components: a. the Capital; b. the supplemental capital; – deducting the following components (if negative): a. goodwill; b. intangible assets; c. adjustments to the value of receivables; d. losses recognized in previous financial periods and in the current period; e. adjustments to the regulatory value of assets valued at their “fair value”. For regulatory purposes, “common equity” shall be considered as equivalent to “common equity tier 1”. Regulatory capital consists of common equity and is calculated by the Institute on a monthly basis, although only required to be calculated by the Supervisory Authority quarterly. 121 IOR Annual report 2016 As required, the amount of annual and half-yearly earnings, excluding the amounts that can potentially be allocated to dividends, contributes to the calculation of regulatory capital for the months of December and June. The Common Equity at the end of 2016 amounted to EUR 635.3m (2015: EUR 650.9m). Considering the items comprising the Institute’s equity, the sole prudential filter in common equity at 31 December 2016 is associated with the positive fair value reserve relating to the investment securities held in the Available for Sale portfolio. This reserve is computed using a negative prudential filter, for an amount equal to 50%. In the calculation of the Regulatory Capital 2016, the Net profit for the year not included, as it is considered fully distributed. 6.2.2 Capital adequacy The monitoring of key ratios is performed daily by the Risk Management Department, in order to continuously monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements. The table below shows the data relating to capital requirements at the end of 2016 and at the end of 2015 for comparison. In order to allow a correct comparison, the 2015 figures have been restated to take account the Authority’s latest notes regarding the weighting of some risks. Unweighted amounts Weighted amounts/ Capital requirements 2016 2015 2016 2015 A. Risk asset A.1 Credit and counterparty risk 1. Standardised approach 1,333,514 1,533,600 360,173 457,872 2. Approach based on internal ratings 2.1 Based 2.2 Advanced 3. Securitizations B. Capital requirements B.1 Credit and counterparty risk 28,814 36,630 B.2 Credit valuation adjustment risk B.3 Settlement risk B.4 Market risk 1. Standardised approach 40,245 39,814 2. Internal model 3. Concentration risk B.5 Operational risk 1. Basic indicator approach 9,699 9,405 2. Standardised approach 3. Advanced approach B.6 Other calculation elements B.7 Total capital requirements 78,758 85,849 C. Risk weighted assets and capital ratios C.1 Risk-weighted assets 984,472 1,073,116 C.2 Capital/ Risk-weighted assets 30.47% 27.96% C.3 Common equity/Risk-weighted assets 64.53% 60.65% 122 IOR Annual report 2016 PART 7. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS Related parties of the Institute include key management personnel (Directorate and Board of Superintendence), the Commission of Cardinals and the Revisori. Transactions with these related parties relate to salaries and remuneration Details of key management compensation Compensation due to related parties were EUR 647,000 in 2016, of which EUR 203,200 was not yet paid as of 31 December 2016. Specifically, these expenses relate to: • EUR 264,500 for the Board of Superintendence of which EUR 120,000 has not yet been paid; • EUR 299,300 for the Directorate; • EUR 83,200 for the Revisori, completely paid. These amounts are recognized in the Income Statement as Operating Expenses. Related-party transactions During 2016, no transactions with key management were entered into, except for the management of the deposit accounts opened with the Institute and salaries and remuneration discussed above. As of the balance sheet date, the balance of deposits by the members of the Commission of Cardinals was EUR 3.4m. Key management personnel and Revisori had deposits totaling EUR 610,000. The Institute has a long-term zero-interest loan to its subsidiary SGIR S.r.l., amounting to EUR 3.3m. In October 2015, the Institute signed the loan for the use of 4 real estate properties at no cost with its subsidiary SGIR S.r.l. During 2016, SGIR S.r.l. did not earn rental income on these properties. 123 IOR Annual report 2016 REPORT OF THE REVISORI To the Board of Superintendence of the Institute In this report, drawn up in accordance with Article 28 of the Statute, the Board of Auditors of the Institute (the "Institute" or the "IOR") remarks on the annual financial statements, the report and the supporting documents, as prepared by the Directorate for the financial year 2016. In performing its work, the Board has responded to the Holy Father’s venerable invitation, expressed in his letter of 30 January 2017, to apply "determination in observing the statutory requirements". This invitation follows the ethical path already demarcated by His Holiness at the meeting of November 2015, where it was indicated that the Board of Auditors should "act with due impartiality and independence". During the financial year, the Board of Statutory Auditors convened periodically to perform its duties and attended, upon invitation, all the meetings of the Board of Superintendence. The meetings of the Board of Auditors were characterized by intense work sessions and benefited from the members’ diverse skills as well as the solid support of the President, the Directorate and, where necessary, the Institute’s Administration and Control Functions. The Board also noted that in 2016, through the provision of dedicated services, the Institute confirmed its commitment to serving the Holy Father in the fulfilment of his mission as universal pastor. Activities carried out in compliance with the Statute’s provisions The Board reports that, in accordance with Article 27 of the Statute, during 2016 it carried out the audits of treasury assets falling within its jurisdiction, as well as the administrative and accounting review of the books and accounts, also by obtaining information from the heads of the internal control functions, and has no remarks to make in this respect. IOR Annual report 2016 127 At the specific request of the Board of Superintendence, the Board of Auditors also carried out internal reviews and other checks. In relation to these activities, the Board notes that the Board of Superintendence instructed certain Board members to take part in a working group in order to draft the Internal Regulations of the Institute, in accordance with the requirements set out under Articles 3, 17 and 24 of the Statute, also taking into account the recommendations made by the Holy Father during his intervention at the Board of Superintendence meeting of 24 November 2015. 2016 financial statements Pursuant to Article 28 of the current Statute, the Board of Auditors of the Institute examined the 2016 financial statements (“Financial Statements”) and the Management Report. The Financial Statements were drawn up in accordance with the Circular on the Preparation of the Annual Financial Statements and Consolidated Financial Statements of Entities carrying out Financial Activities on a Professional Basis, issued by the Financial Information Authority on 15 December 2016. Since this is the first financial year to which these new drafting principles have been applied, the financial data for 2015 have also been reclassified in accordance with the provisions laid down in the Circular, to make a comparison possible. The Financial Statements are made up of the following: • Balance Sheet; • Profit and Loss Statement; • Comprehensive Profit and Loss Statement; • Statement of Cash Flows; • Statement of Changes in Equity. The Annual Report includes the above documents as well as a description of the Institute's activities, a summary of the accounting policies as well as the risks and uncertainties linked to the use of estimates, the explanatory notes to the Financial Statements, and financial risk information prepared in accordance with the Vatican rules on prudential supervision. 128 IOR Annual report 2016 129 IOR Annual report 2016 The Financial Statements may be summarised as follows: EUR000 BALANCE SHEET Total assets 3,268,890 Total liabilities 2,596,290 Net assets 672,600 PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT Net result from financial activities 42,762 Net operating profit 36,001 Profit available for distribution 36,001 The Financial Statements have been audited by Deloitte & Touche S.p.A., which expressed a clean and unqualified opinion on 26 April 2017. Based on the audits that have been performed, and taking into account the conclusions drawn by the internal control functions and the audit firm’s unqualified opinion, this Board of Auditors: • is in favour of the approval of the 2016 financial statements (Financial Statements) included in the Annual Report, as prepared by the Directorate; • agrees with the proposed allocation of the net operating profit. Vatican City State, 26 April 2017 The Board of Statutory Auditors Mario Busso Giovanni Barbara Luca Del Pico This report has been translated into the English language solely for convenience of international readers. REPORT OF THE EXTERNAL AUDITORS IOR Annual report 2016 133 134 IOR Annual report 2016 135 IOR Annual report 2016 Printing Iger & Partners S.r.l. Rome - Italy june 2017

http://www.ior.va/content/dam/ior/documenti/rapporto-annuale/IOR-Annual%20Report%202016.pdf

Le Pape François a confirmé pour un quinquennat le Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran comme Membre de la Commission cardinalice de surveillance sur l'Institut pour les oeuvres de religion et nommé pour un quinquennat comme membres de la Commission cardinalice de surveillance sur l'Institut pour les oeuvres de religion:
 le Cardinal Christoph Schönborn (Autriche),
le Cardinal Thomas Christopher Collins (Canada),
 le Cardinal Santos Abril y Castelló (Archiprêtre de Ste.Marie Majeure),
et Mgr.Pietro Parolin (Secrétaire d’État).

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(c) Date de l'article, sinon 2000 Famille de Siebenthal, Lausanne, Suisse. 021 616 88 88

Sites que vous devriez visiter, merci

Saint Jean-Paul II a comparé le rapport sexuel entre les époux chrétiens à l'adoration eucharistique.

http://desiebenthal.blogspot.com/2011/05/le-rapport-sexuel-est-comparable.html


http://michaeljournal.org

http://ferraye.blogspot.com/

Un pour tous, tous pour un, IEOUA, LIOBA, Alleluia

Un pour tous, tous pour un, IEOUA, LIOBA, Alleluia
Image des rings burgondes. Donner à chaque souverain, le peuple est le souverain en Suisse, sa part des créations monétaires volées actuellement par les banques commerciales. La banque nationale suisse doit devenir une coopérative, et pas une société anonyme, qui distribue à chacun et chacune ce qui lui est dû par un dividende social à tous dès la conception ! Voter oui à l'initiative monnaies pleines, monnaies au pluriel qui respectent notamment les wirs, voir www.wir.ch http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2015/12/projet-de-loi-dapplication-de-monnaie.html http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2015/12/swiss-positive-money-social-credit.html à faire circuler largement, merci, le monde est déjà meilleur grâce à ce simple geste de solidarité.

Les combats intérieurs.

Les combats intérieurs.
Signification des armoiries:chapelle de Gstaad, St Niklaus. Mettons le dragon qui est en chacun de nous sous 7 verrous. Meaning of the coat of arms: Chapel of Gstaad, St Niklaus. Let the dragon that is in each of us within 7 locks. http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2015/12/misericordes-suisses.html

Un pour tous, tous pour un.

Un pour tous, tous pour un.
Le dragon de nos armoiries qui crache le feu sur le casque.

Les valeurs suisses

Les valeurs suisses
Un pour tous, tous pour un.

Archives du blog

Les sept verrous qui bloquent le dragon qui est en chacun d'entre nous.

On triomphe des 7 vices capitaux par l’exercice des 7 vertus opposées.

Ainsi on triomphe :

de l’orgueil par l’humilité,

de l’avarice par la libéralité,

de la luxure par la chasteté,

de la colère par la patience,

de la gourmandise par l’abstinence,

de l’envie par l’amour fraternel,

de la paresse par la diligence et l’ardeur dans le service de Dieu.

Un combat à la fois, un par jour est plus efficace.

Sagesse de la première Alliance...Isaïe 11.1-3

Un rejeton sortira de la souche de Jessé,
un surgeon poussera de ses racines.
Sur lui reposera l’Esprit du Seigneur,
esprit de sagesse et d’intelligence,
esprit de conseil et de force,
esprit de connaissance et de crainte du Seigneur
son inspiration est dans la crainte [piété] du Seigneur.


ll y a sept dons du Saint-Esprit qui nous aident dans ce combat :

1 le don de Sagesse ;

2 d’Intelligence ;

3 de Conseil ;

4 de Force ;

5 de Science ;

6 de Piété ;

7 de Crainte de Dieu.

A quoi servent les 7 dons du Saint-Esprit ?

Les 7 dons du Saint-Esprit servent à nous confirmer dans la Foi, l’Espérance et la Charité ; et à nous rendre prompts aux actes de vertu nécessaires pour acquérir la vie chrétienne et le CIEL.

Qu’est-ce que la Sagesse ?

La Sagesse est un don par lequel, élevant notre esprit au-dessus des choses terrestres et fragiles, nous contemplons les choses éternelles, c’est-à-dire la Vérité qui est Dieu, en qui nous nous complaisons et que nous aimons comme notre souverain Bien.

Qu’est-ce que l’Intelligence ?

L’Intelligence est un don par lequel nous est facilitée, autant que c’est possible pour un homme mortel, l’intelligence de la Foi et des divins mystères que nous ne pouvons connaître par les lumières naturelles de notre esprit.

Qu’est-ce que le Conseil ?

Le Conseil est un don par lequel, dans les doutes et les incertitudes de la vie humaine, nous connaissons ce qui contribue le plus à la gloire de Dieu, à notre salut et à celui du prochain.

Qu’est-ce que la Force ?

La Force est un don qui nous inspire de l’énergie et du courage pour observer fidèlement la sainte loi de Dieu et de l’Eglise, en surmontant tous les obstacles et toutes les attaques de nos ennemis.

Qu’est-ce que la Science ?

La Science est un don par lequel nous apprécions sainement les choses créées, et nous connaissons la manière d’en bien user et de les diriger vers leur fin dernière qui est Dieu.

Qu’est-ce que la Piété ?

La Piété est un don par lequel nous vénérons et nous aimons Dieu et les Saints, et nous avons des sentiments de miséricorde et de bienveillance envers le prochain pour l’amour de Dieu.

Qu’est-ce que la Crainte de Dieu ?

La Crainte de Dieu est un don qui nous fait respecter Dieu et craindre d’offenser sa divine Majesté, et qui nous détourne du mal en nous portant au bien dans l'amour.


Les dons du Saint Esprit
(CEC 1830-1831 ; ST I-II 68.1-8)


Les dons sont des habitudes, habitus infus, qui sont en nous et qui nous rendent réceptifs aux motions du Saint-Esprit, pour nous faire mieux agir en faveur du bien commun.

« Les dons sont des habitus qui perfectionnent l’homme pour qu’il suive promptement l’impulsion du Saint-Esprit, de même que les vertus morales disposent les facultés appétitives à obéir à la raison. Or, de même qu’il est naturel pour les facultés appétitives d’être mues par le commandement de la raison ; de même il est naturel pour toutes les facultés humaines d’être mues par l’impulsion de Dieu comme par une puissance supérieure. » ST I-II 68.4

Les sept dons du Saint Esprit
(ST I-II 68.4)


Intelligence : nous rend réceptifs à l’action de l’Esprit Saint dans l’appréhension, par l’intelligence, des vérités spéculatives (ST II-II 8.1-8).
Conseil : nous rend réceptifs à l’action de l’Esprit Saint dans l’appréhension, par l’intelligence, des vérités pratiques (ST II-II 52.1-4).
Sagesse : nous rend réceptifs à l’action de l’Esprit Saint dans le jugement, par l’intelligence, des vérités spéculatives (ST II-II 45.1-6).
Connaissance : nous rend réceptifs à l’action de l’Esprit Saint dans le jugement, par l’intelligence, des vérités pratiques (ST II-II 9.1-4).
Piété : nous rend réceptifs à l’action de l’Esprit Saint dans les appétits de l’amour des choses qui concernent un autre (ST II-II 121.1-2).
Force : nous rend réceptifs à l’action de l’Esprit Saint dans les appétits de la crainte des choses qui nous concernent (ST II-II 138.1-2).
Crainte : nous rend réceptifs à l’action de l’Esprit Saint dans les appétits du désir des choses nous concernant (ST II-II 19.1-12).

http://www.lumenc.org/maladies.php

Les conseils du pape François pour se confesser

Dans un petit livret intitulé « Prends soin de ton cœur », offert par le pape François aux pèlerins de la place Saint Pierre après l'Angelus du 22 février, se trouvent différents textes à méditer pendant le carême et un examen de conscience pour se préparer à la confession.

  • Une distribution un peu particulière a eu lieu il y a quelques jours place Saint-Pierre, à Rome. Des bénévoles, parmi lesquels de nombreux sans-abri venus en pèlerinage, ont distribué à la foule réunie pour entendre l'Angelus un petit carnet offert par le pape pour le premier dimanche du carême.
  • Notre cœur doit se convertir au Seigneur, a insisté François lors de l'Angélus. C’est pourquoi, en ce premier dimanche, j’ai pensé vous offrir, à vous qui êtes ici sur la place, un petit livret de poche intitulé "Prends soin de ton cœur". »

Celui-ci rassemble quelques enseignements de Jésus et les contenus essentiels de la foi, comme les sept sacrements, les dons de l'Esprit Saint, les dix commandements, les vertus, les œuvres de miséricorde, etc. On y trouve aussi un examen de conscience dont le pape avait souligné l'importance lors de sa messe quotidienne à la chapelle de la maison Sainte-Marthe le 11 octobre 2014. « Avoir un cœur recueilli, un cœur dans lequel nous savons ce qui se passe et ici et là, nous pouvons exercer une pratique ancienne mais efficace de l’Église : l’examen de conscience. Qui d’entre nous, le soir, avant de finir sa journée, reste tout seul ou toute seule et se pose la question : qu’est-ce qui s’est passé aujourd’hui dans mon cœur ? Qu’est-il arrivé ? Quelles émotions ont traversé mon cœur ? Si nous ne faisons pas cela, nous ne réussissons pas ni à bien veiller ni à bien protéger notre cœur »

I. Petits rappels sur le sacrement de Confession (ou de Pénitence ou de Réconciliation)

Un vrai chrétien a le souci constant de conserver son âme en état de grâce aux yeux de Dieu. Il sait, en effet, d’une part, que nul ne connaît ni le jour ni l’heure de sa mort et que, d’autre part, l’âme, pour être admise au bonheur parfait et éternel du Ciel, doit être entiè­rement purifiée du péché. C’est pourquoi il reçoit volontiers le sacrement de la Réconciliation.

Par ce sacrement, on obtient la rémission de tous les péchés person­nels (quelle qu’en soit la gravité) commis après le baptême. Ce pouvoir qu’avait le Christ, il l’a transmis à ses Apôtres quand, leur apparaissant après sa Résurrection, il leur a dit : Recevez le Saint-Esprit : les péchés seront remis à ceux à qui vous les remettrez ; ils seront retenus à ceux à qui vous les retiendrez (Jean, XX, 23). Ce pouvoir passa des Apôtres à leurs successeurs.


Tout chrétien doit recevoir ce sacrement au moins une fois chaque année. Il comporte :

L’examen des fautes commises.
Le regret de les avoir commises (Contrition).
La résolution sincère de les éviter à l’avenir.
L’accusation des péchés, au moins graves, à un prêtre approuvé, tenant la place de Dieu.
L’absolution donnée par le prêtre au nom de Jésus-Christ.
L’accomplissement de la pénitence qu’il a imposée (Satisfaction).


Le sacrement de pénitence produit notre propre mort au péché et notre résurrection à la vie en Dieu. Il prolonge ainsi notre baptême et nous prépare à l’eucharistie. Il doit laisser dans nos âmes une immense joie, car c’est un sacrement de vie.


II. Quelques conseils pour bien réaliser son examen de conscience

Par une courte prière, demander à Dieu et à Notre-Dame la grâce de bien connaître les péchés dont on est coupable.

S’examiner sur les Commandements de Dieu et de l’Église ; les péchés capitaux ; les devoirs de son état.

Pour aider le plus d’âmes possible, dont les besoins sont très divers, l’examen proposé ci-après est plutôt détaillé. Mais il est rappelé qu’en confession seule l’accusation des péchés mortels est obligatoire. Un péché est mortel quand, sachant pleinement que la matière en était grave, on l’a néanmoins commis avec un entier consentement. C’est alors une rupture d’amour avec Dieu. Et comme l’âme cesse ainsi d’être unie à Dieu - de qui elle tenait sa vie -, elle meurt surna­turellement : le péché a été "mortel" pour elle.

L’examen terminé, demander instamment à Dieu, par l’intercession de la Vierge Marie, la grâce d’une vraie contrition des péchés com­mis et la ferme résolution de les éviter à l’avenir, conditions indispen­sables pour obtenir le pardon de ses péchés.

Pour exciter en soi le regret de ses fautes, réfléchir durant quelques instants :

au redoutable châtiment du purgatoire ou de l’enfer que l’on a mérité ;
aux souffrances et à la mort que Jésus-Christ endura pour l’expiation de nos péchés ;
à la bonté d’un Dieu d’amour et de miséricorde, offensé par le péché qui a produit une rupture profonde, surtout s’il a été mortel.

Puis, réciter lentement l’acte de contrition.

III. Quelques conseils pour recevoir le sacrement lui-même

Avant de rentrer au confessionnal, ou immédiatement en entrant, suivant la coutume, réciter le « Je confesse à Dieu… » LeConfiteor nous remet devant cette réalité du péché et nous fait accomplir le mouvement de « conver­sion » nécessaire, vers Dieu et vers les autres :

Parce que nous nous sommes opposés à l’Amour tout-puissant, en cherchant à réaliser notre bonheur contre Lui ou sans Lui, nous disons : « Je confesse à Dieu tout-puissant » ;

Parce que nous avons porté atteinte à l’œuvre de l’Incarnation et de la Rédemption, en nous séparant de tous ceux qui ont coopéré à cette œuvre, notamment de la Mère du Christ, nous disons : « Je confesse … à la Bienheureuse Marie toujours Vierge » ;

Parce que nous nous sommes opposés à l’œuvre de lutte et de fidélité des anges, l’attente des martyrs, des prophètes de l’Ancien Testament, morts pour que le Règne du Messie se réalise, à l’œuvre des apôtres et des saints qui ont travaillé pour le Christ, nous disons : « Je confesse… à saint Michel (vainqueur du démon), à saint Jean Baptiste (dernier des pro­phètes), aux apôtres (représentés par saint Pierre et saint Paul), et à tous les saints » ;

Enfin, parce que notre péché s’est opposé à toute l’Église et nous sépare des autres membres du Corps Mystique que le prêtre représente, en même temps qu’il tient la place de Jésus Christ, nous disons : « Je confesse… à vous, mon Père… ».


Avant de commencer l’énumération des péchés, préciser : le temps écoulé depuis la dernière confession ; un oubli ou une dissimulation de péché grave dans celle-ci ; une ou plusieurs mauvaises communions (en état de péché grave) ; une omission de la pénitence donnée (volontaire ou non).


Accuser sincèrement tous les péchés mortels que l’on a commis, avec leur nombre et les circonstances qui les ont modifiés (aggravés, allégés), comme par exemple, les péchés commis avec d’autres personnes qu’on a ainsi scandalisées, ou qu’on a entraîné au péché.

L’accusation des péchés véniels n’est pas indispensable car on peut en obtenir le pardon par d’autres moyens que la confession, par exemple la prière, l’aumône, la pénitence… Pourtant, cette accusation est fort conseillée car, par le sacrement de la Confession, on obtient des grâces spéciales pour éviter ces péchés véniels à l’avenir.

Dans le cadre de confessions régulières, on peut dire où l’on en est par rapport à son défaut dominant, ou par rapport à ses résolutions.

Si l’on est troublé ou que l’on a peur, ou tout simplement si on hésite, on peut demander au prêtre de nous interroger, ou de nous renseigner sur la gravité d’un péché.

Terminer par : « Je m’accuse de tous ces péchés, de tous ceux que j’aurais pu avoir oublié et de tous ceux de ma vie passée ; j’en demande très humblement pardon à Dieu, et à vous mon Père, pénitence et absolution si vous m’en jugez digne ».


Ecouter avec attention le mot d'exhortation du prêtre. Avant l'absolution, bien regretter ses péchés, et réciter à cet effet l'acte de contrition : « Mon Dieu, j'ai un très grand regret de Vous avoir offensé, parce que Vous êtes infiniment bon, infiniment aimable et que le péché Vous déplaît. Je prends la ferme résolution avec le secours de Votre sainte grâce de ne plus Vous offenser et de faire pénitence. »


Après la confession, accomplir la pénitence imposée par le confesseur au plus tôt, afin de ne pas l’oublier ; remercier Dieu du pardon obtenu ; renouveler sa résolution d’éviter tout péché à l’avenir, surtout le péché grave.


Examen de conscience détaillé

Avant de commencer cet examen, adresser à Dieu cette prière :

Mon Dieu, je vous supplie, par l’intercession de la Vierge Marie, de m’accorder la grâce de bien connaître tous les péchés dont je suis coupable. Faites qu’ensuite je m’en accuse avec un sincère regret de les avoir commis et une ferme volonté de les éviter à l’avenir et qu’ainsi j’en obtienne le pardon de votre miséricorde infinie. Ainsi soit-il.


Examen sur les commandements de Dieu

1er Commandement : « Tu adoreras Dieu seul et l’aimeras plus que tout… »

Omission de la prière (en particulier le matin et le soir), de la fré­quentation des sacrements de la Pénitence et de l’Eucharistie… Communions ou confessions sacrilèges… Manque de respect des sacrements… Manque au jeûne avant la communion (une heure au moins)… Violation du secret de confession… Doutes volontaires contre la foi… Mise en péril de la foi par la lecture de journaux impies, par des fréquentations dangereuses… Respect humain… Manque de confiance en Dieu ou confiance présomptueuse en ses propres forces… Indifférence à l’égard de Dieu… Manque de soumission à la volonté de Dieu… Pratiques superstitieuses, spiritisme… Critiques de la religion… Adhésion à des mouvements incompatibles avec la foi catholique… Négligence dans sa formation chrétienne…


2ème Commandement : « Tu ne prononceras le nom de Dieu qu’avec respect… »

Emploi inutile du nom de Dieu… Blasphèmes, imprécations, jurons… Serments faux ou inutiles… Irrespect à l’égard des personnes et des choses consacrées à Dieu… Souhaits néfastes à l’égard de soi-même ou d’autrui… Non-accomplissement des vœux émis…


3ème Commandement : « Tu sanctifieras le jour du Seigneur… »

Omission volontaire ou sans motif de l’assistance à la Messe domini­cale ou des fêtes d’obligation… Retard volontaire ou dissipation durant ces Messes… Travail fait ou ordonné sans nécessité ou permission… Recherches de distractions contraires à la sanctification du dimanche…


4ème Commandement : « Tu honoreras ton père et ta mère… »

Manque d’amour, d’affection, de respect, d’obéissance, d’assistance à l’égard des parents durant leur vie et de prière à leur intention après leur mort… Peine causée… Souhaits de mal… Disputes d’intérêt en famille… Manque de déférence et de soumission à l’égard des supérieurs…

Pour les parents à l’égard de leurs enfants : négligence dans leur édu­cation chrétienne ou leur pratique religieuse, mauvais exemples donnés, manque de surveillance, de soins, de disponibilité, de conseils ou de corrections nécessaire… Dureté, injustice, sévérité excessive…


5ème Commandement : « Tu ne tueras point… »

Meurtre, tentative de suicide, euthanasie… Avortements, stérilisations… Souhait de mort ou de malheur à l’égard d’autrui… Vengeance, coups, blessures, torts causés à la santé, drogues, alcool, mutilations… Insultes, injures, mépris, faux rapports, haine, violences, refus de pardonner, vengeances… Indifférence à la peine d’autrui… Scan­dales par mauvais exemples, par conseils ou approbation silen­cieuse…


6ème et 9ème Commandements : « Tu ne feras pas d’impureté… » et « Tu n’auras pas de désir impur volontaire… »

Pensées ou désirs impurs provoqués en soi ou chez les autres… Conversations, chansons, lectures, spectacles immoraux (TV, Internet…) Flirts… Familiarités coupables… Danses lascives… Touchers indécents… Actions contraires à la chasteté, seul ou avec d’autres : masturbation, relations charnelles en dehors du mariage, homosexualité… Tenues ou attitudes provocantes…

Pour les fiancés : Légèretés, tendresses excessivement sensuelles… Relations prématrimoniales… Cohabitation…

Pour les époux : Atteintes coupables à la fécondité du mariage, contraception permanente ou temporaire… Limitation de l’usage du mariage aux jours inféconds sans cause sérieuse… Adultère (pensées, désirs, actions)… Liaisons… Divorce… Remariage civil… Refus injuste du droit du conjoint…


7ème et 10ème Commandements : « Tu ne voleras pas… » et « Tu ne désireras pas injustement le bien d’autrui… »

Vol (quoi ? combien ? circonstances ?), recel, objets trouvés ou empruntés et non rendus… Dommages injustes causés au prochain dans ses biens… Fraudes, manœuvres déloyales dans le travail, les affaires, le commerce, les contrats… Pots-de-vin… Coopération à des injustices… Recel d’objets volés… Négligence dans le paiement des dettes… Salaires insuffisants… Exploitation des faibles… Dommages aux biens collectifs… Désirs de vol ou d’injustices… Non-réparation de dommages causés… Non-restitution… Gaspillage… Travail bâclé…


8ème Commandement : « Tu ne mentiras pas… »

Mensonges avec ou sans préjudice pour autrui… Médisances ou calom­nies, faites ou approuvées… Faux témoignages en justice… Accusations injustes… Jugements téméraires… Rapports injustes nuisibles… Violation du secret, confié ou professionnel, des correspondances… Dissimulation, hypocrisie… Tricheries… Promesses non tenues… Refus de rectifier la vérité…


Examen sur les commandements de l’Église

Tu sanctifieras les fêtes d’obligation (Noël, Ascension, Assomption, Toussaint).

Tu assisteras à la messe les dimanches et fêtes d’obligation.

Tu te confesseras au moins une fois l’an.

Tu communieras chaque année au Temps pascal.

Tu jeûneras les jours fixés par l’Église (Mercredi des Cendres et Vendredi Saint).

Tu ne mangeras pas de viande les jours fixés par l’Église (c’est-à-dire, les jours de jeûne et les vendredis de Carême). Pour les autres vendredis de l’année, cette abstinence peut être remplacée par une autre forme de pénitence (qu’il faut alors accomplir sous peine de péché).


Examen sur les péchés capitaux

ORGUEIL : Amour-propre désordonné… Complaisance en soi-même… Egoïsme… Ambition démesurée… Vanité mondaine… Présomption… Attitudes hautaines, susceptibilité…

AVARICE : Vices contraires aux 7ème et 10ème commandements. Refus de partager, d’aider ceux qui sont dans le besoin (aumône) …

LUXURE : Vices contraires aux 6ème et 9ème commandements.

ENVIE : Jalousie du bonheur, des biens, des succès des autres ; joie de leurs malheurs, de leurs misères, de leurs revers…

GOURMANDISE : Excès dans le manger, le boire… Ivrognerie… Sensualité… Ivresse des stupéfiants…

COLÈRE : Manque de maîtrise de soi, emportements, rancunes, res­sentiment, murmures, bouderie, brusquerie, grossièreté, cruauté…

PARESSE : Dans le lever, le travail, les prières… Oisiveté… Fuite systématique des efforts…


Examen sur les devoirs d’état

N.B. L’examen suivant est très détaillé, et reprend en partie ce qui a déjà été vu auparavant.


Alors qu’il est très important, c’est un domaine qu’on oublie souvent dans l’examen de la conscience. Selon son état de vie et ses responsabilités :


1. Devoirs personnels de chrétiens :

Quelle importance ai-je attaché à ma vie chrétienne, au milieu de toutes mes occupations ? A-t-elle la première place ? Y a-t-il dans ma vie une cohérence entre ma foi et mes œuvres ?

Est-ce que je crois à la présence et à l’action du Seigneur dans le monde et dans ma vie de chaque jour ? Ai-je cherché à mieux connaître sa pensée et sa volonté en face des événements, en face des autres, et de mes problèmes personnels ? Suis-je fidèle à la vocation que Dieu m’a envoyée ?

Ai-je cherché à grandir dans la foi, à approfondir ma connaissance du Sei­gneur par la lecture de l’Évangile et du Catéchisme, ou par tout autre moyen mis à ma disposition : retraites, cours, prédications… ?

Ai-je eu peur de témoigner de ma foi par lâcheté, respect humain ? N’ai-je pas cédé aux doutes, à l’inquiétude, à l’angoisse, au désespoir ?

Ai-je compté sur le Seigneur dans les difficultés et dans les tentations ?

Est-ce que je vis dans l’attente de la vie éternelle ?

Ai-je prié ? Régulièrement ? Avec mon cœur ? Avec toute ma vie ?

Ai-je pris part à la Sainte Messe quand l’Église me le demande ? Y ai-je participé de mon mieux ?

Ai-je vécu le dimanche comme un jour de prière et de joie ? N’ai-je pas accom­pli des travaux qui ne sont pas conformes à cet esprit ?

Ai-je fait quelque chose pour aider la mission d’évangélisation de l’Église ? Pour ramener mes connaissances à la vraie foi ?

N’ai-je pas refusé par souci de ma tranquillité ou par égoïsme de m’engager dans un mouvement d’Église ?

Ai-je collaboré loyalement avec les prêtres de l’Église ? Les ai-je aidé autant que je pouvais ?


2. Devoirs envers le prochain :

Est-ce que j’aime le prochain d’un amour vrai et efficace ?

La misère, les souffrances des autres sont-elles pour moi une préoccupation ? Ai-je fait mon possible pour les sou­lager ?

Ai-je cherché à comprendre les autres ? Ai-je cherché à les aider en mettant à leur disposition mon amitié, mon temps, mes biens ?

N’ai-je jamais blessé les autres par mes paroles, mes gestes ?

Ai-je risqué de porter atteinte à la vie des autres ou à la mienne, par des im­prudences dans le travail, le sport ou sur la route ?

En quoi ai-je pu trahir l’amour des autres : indifférence, oubli des autres, mise à l’écart de certains, mauvais caractère, volonté d’avoir raison à tout prix, jalousie, envie, désir de vengeance, mépris, jugement téméraire, haine, rail­lerie, médisance, calomnie, secrets ré­vélés, achats ou ventes à des prix injustes, dettes impayées, choses non rendues, gaspillage ou détérioration des biens collectifs, mauvais exemple, scan­dale d’autant plus grand qu’il vient d’un témoin du Christ, refus de pardonner.


3. Devoirs familiaux :

Enfants :

Ai-je vraiment aimé mes parents, en évitant d’augmenter leurs difficultés, en leur apportant mon concours, en leur manifestant mon affection ?

Ai-je respecté mes parents ? En leur parlant avec déférence, en ne les jugeant pas sans les comprendre ?

Ai-je respecté l’autorité de mes parents en écoutant leurs conseils, leurs ordres et en les exécutant de mon mieux ?

N’ai-je pas gêné l’atmosphère familiale par de la mauvaise humeur, de la bouderie, de la révolte ?

Est-ce que j’aide de mon mieux mes parents âgés quand ils sont dans la gêne, ou malades ou isolés ?

Est-ce que je cherche à bien m’entendre avec tous les membres de ma famille ?


Personnes mariées :

Suis-je fidèle à l’amour promis le jour du mariage ? Ai-je cherché à développer cet amour, à me donner sans réserve et à me sacrifier ?

Ai-je souci des désirs, des goûts, des difficultés de mon époux ou de mon épouse ?

N’ai-je pas négligé mon foyer ? Ai-je le souci de penser à deux les pro­blèmes de ma famille ?

N’ai-je pas gâché notre amour en ne maîtrisant pas suffisamment les défauts de mon caractère ?

N’ai-je pas recherché les joies du mariage par simple égoïsme ?

La communion des cœurs et des esprits l’emporte-t-elle et anime-t-elle celle des corps ?

N’ai-je pas par égoïsme refusé d’avoir des enfants ? Ai-je dans ce but utilisé des moyens défendus ?

Est-ce que j’apporte toute l’attention voulue à l’éducation de mes enfants ?

Est-ce que je cherche à les connaître, à les comprendre, à découvrir leurs goûts, leur vocation, à suivre leur évolution quand ils grandissent ?

Ai-je pensé à leur donner le moyen d’exercer leur liberté quand ils grandissent ?

Mon attitude envers eux ne manque-t-elle pas de fermeté ou au contraire d’affection et de confiance ?

Est-ce que je leur donne le bon exemple ?

Ai-je cherché à les éduquer religieusement ? Leur ai-je donné le sens de la prière ?

Ai-je cherché à garder au foyer le sens du jour du Seigneur ? Ai-je aidé mes enfants à préparer leur messe ?

Ai-je considéré comme un honneur et un devoir de donner à Dieu des prêtres, des religieuses ?

Notre foyer est-il accueillant pour les autres ?


4. Devoirs professionnels :

Enfants :

Ai-je manqué l’école par ma faute ?

Ai-je mal étudié mes leçons, mal fait mes devoirs ?

Ai-je triché en classe (copié, soufflé) ?


Adultes :

Ai-je négligé mon travail ?

Ai-je conscience des responsabilités qu’engage ma situation, mon rôle ?

Quelle est mon attitude à l’égard de ceux qui me dirigent ? N’ai-je pas cherché, par méchanceté ou jalousie, à miner leur autorité ?

Quelle est mon attitude vis à vis de ceux qui travaillent avec moi ? N’ai-je pas tendance à me décharger sur les autres de ma tâche ? Est-ce que je sais les aider, les soutenir, entretenir avec eux des relations de bonne camaraderie ?

Ai-je pris ma place dans les organisa­tions professionnelles ?

Quelle est mon attitude vis à vis de ceux que je commande ou que j’emploie ? Est-ce que je les rétribue conformément à la justice ? Les ai-je traité humainement, en res­pectant leur dignité d’hommes ? Ne leur ai-je pas confié des tâches au-dessus de leurs forces ? Leur ai-je accordé le repos auquel ils ont droit et dont ils ont besoin ?


5. Devoirs civiques :

Ai-je rempli mes devoirs de chrétien dans la société ?

Ai-je cherché à m’informer le mieux possible pour comprendre les pro­blèmes sociaux et économiques ? A découvrir les solutions justes et efficaces ?

Ai-je le souci de tenir ma place dans la vie de la cité ou de la nation pour lui donner une meilleure orienta­tion ? Ai-je su accepter les charges mu­nicipales ou autres en les envisageant comme un service ?

Ai-je choisi mes représentants en fonc­tion de leur aptitude à promouvoir le bien commun et la loi divine plutôt qu’en fonction de leur aptitude à défendre mes intérêts ?

Ai-je fait mon possible pour faire changer les lois injustes (Avortements, divorce, euthanasie, pacs, etc.) ?

Examen de conscience pour Adultes

________________________________

Je crois en un Sauveur aimant qui pardonne mes péchés et qui me donne la grâce de devenir un Saint. Par le ministère de ses Prêtres, Jésus–Christ accomplit l’un et l’autre dans le Sacrement de Pénitence.

"Comme le Père M’a envoyé, Moi aussi Je vous envoie … Recevez le Saint Esprit. Les péchés seront pardonnés à qui vous les pardonnerez ils seront retenus à qui vous les retiendrez." (Jean XX : 21-23)

"Vos péchés seraient-ils rouges comme l’écarlate, ils deviendront blancs comme la neige." (Isaie I : 18)

"Je ne suis pas venu appeler les justes, mais les pécheurs." ( Matt. IX : 13)

"Les hommes ont reçu de Dieu un pouvoir accordé ni aux Anges,ni aux Archanges. Jamais il n’a dit aux Esprits Célestes « Tout ce que vous lierez et délierez sur la terre sera lié et délié dans le ciel ». Les Princes de ce monde peuvent seulement lier et délier le corps. Le pouvoir du prêtre va plus loin, il atteint l’âme et elle est exorcisée non seulement par le baptême, mais encore plus par le pardon des péchés. Ne rougissons donc pas de confesser nos fautes. Celui qui rougit de découvrir ses péchés à un homme et qui ne se confesse pas, sera couvert de honte au Jour du Jugement en présence de tout l’univers," (St Jean Chrysostome, Traité sur les prêtres, Livre 3)

Prière avant la confession: O Seigneur, accordez-moi la lumière pour que je me voie comme Vous me voyez, et le grâce de regretter vraiment et effectivement mes péchés. O Marie, aidez-moi à faire une bonne confession.

Comment se confesser: D’abord, examinez bien votre conscience, puis dites au prêtre le genre précis de péchés que vous avez commis et dans la mesure du possible, combien de fois vous les avez commis depuis votre dernière bonne confession. Il n’est obligatoire de confesser que les péchés mortels puisqu’on peut obtenir le pardon des péchés véniels par les sacrifices et les actes de charité. Si vous n’avez pas la certitude qu’un péché soit mortel ou véniel, mentionnez votre doute au confesseur. Souvenez-vous aussi que la confession de péchés véniels aide à éviter le péché et à progresser vers le Ciel.

Conditions nécessaires pour qu’un péché soit mortel:

Matière grave
Pleine connaissance
Entier consentement de la volonté.

Considérations préliminaires:

Ai-je parfois omis de confesser un péché grave dans le passé ; ou ai-je volontairement déguisé ou caché un tel péché ?
Nota bene : Cacher des péchés rend invalide la confession .
La confession est secrète, c’est à dire que c’est une faute mortelle pour le prêtre de révéler à qui que ce soit l’objet d’une confession.
Ai-je été coupable d’irrévérence envers ce sacrement en omettant d’examiner ma conscience avec soin?
Ai-je négligé de faire la pénitence donnée par le prêtre?
Ai-je des habitudes de péchés graves à confesser d’abord (par exemple: impureté, ivrognerie, etc.)

Premier Commandement:

Je suis le Seigneur Ton Dieu. Tu n’auras pas des dieux étrangers devant Moi. (y compris les péchés contre la Foi, l’Espérance et la Charité)

L'amour de l'argent est la racine de tous les maux, c'est une idolâtrie...

Ai-je négligé de connaître ma foi selon l’enseignement du catéchisme, par exemple le Symbole des Apôtres, les Dix Commandements, les Sept Sacrements, le Notre Père, etc.?
Ai-je volontairement mis en doute ou renié l’un des enseignements de l’Eglise?
Ai-je pris part à quelque culte non- catholique?
Suis-je membre de quelque organisation religieuse non-catholique, société secrète ou groupe anti-catholique?
Ai-je, en toute connaissance, lu quelque littérature hérétique, blasphématoire ou anti catholique?
Ai-je pratiqué des superstitions (telles que les horoscopes, prédiction d’avenir, spiritisme, etc.)
Ai-je omis des obligations ou pratiques religieuses pour des motifs de respect humain?
Me suis-je recommandé chaque jour à Dieu?
Ai-je été fidèle à mes prières quotidiennes?
Ai-je fait mauvais usage des Sacrements? Les ai-je reçus sans respect (par exemple la Communion dans la main) ou de manière invalide?
Me suis-je moqué de Dieu, de Notre-Dame, des Saints, de l’Eglise, des Sacrements ou d’autres sujets sacrés?
Ai-je été coupable de grande irrévérence dans l’Eglise (par exemple: conversation, comportement ou vêtement)?
Ai-je été indifférent vis-à-vis de ma foi catholique – en croyant qu’on peut se sauver dans n’importe quelle religion, que toutes les religions se valent?
Ai-je présumé de la miséricorde de Dieu en toute circonstance?
Ai-je désespéré de la miséricorde de Dieu?
Ai-je trahi Dieu?
Ai-je donné trop d’importance à quelque créature, activité, objet ou opinion?

Deuxième Commandement:

Tu ne prendras pas en vain le Nom du Seigneur Ton Dieu.

Ai-je blasphémé le Nom de Dieu à tort, inconsidérément ou en matière légère et triviale?
Ai-je murmuré ou gémi contre Dieu (blasphème)?
Ai-je prononcé des malédictions contre moi-même ou les autres, ou toute créature?
Me suis-je emporté contre les autres jusqu’à provoquer des jurons ou des blasphèmes contre Dieu?
Ai-je manqué à un vœu fait à Dieu?

Troisième Commandement:

Souvenez –vous de sanctifier le Sabbat.

Ai-je manqué la Messe le dimanche ou une fête d’obligation?
Ai-je été en retard à la Messe ou l’ai-je écourtée par ma faute?
Ai-je fait manquer la Messe à d’autres ou leur ai-je fait écourter la Messe?
Ai-je été volontairement distrait pendant la Messe ?
Ai-je fait ou commander un travail servile non nécessaire le dimanche ou les jours de fête d’obligation?
Ai-je acheté ou vendu sans nécessité ce jour là?

Quatrième Commandement:

Honore ton père et ta mère.

Ai-je désobéi ou manqué de respect envers mes parents ou ai-je négligé ou refusé de les aider dans leurs besoins ?
Ai-je manqué de respect pour des personnes chargées de me commander?
Ai-je calomnié ou insulté des prêtres ou d’autres personnes consacrées à Dieu?
Ai-je manqué de respect vis à vis des personnes âgées?
Ai-je maltraité mon conjoint ou mes enfants?
Ai-je désobéi ou manqué de respect à mon mari?
En ce qui concerne mes enfants:

Ai-je négligé leurs besoins matériels?
Me suis-je soucié de les faire baptiser de bonne heure?1
Ai-je pris soin de leur éducation religieuse personnelle?
Leur ai-je permis de négliger leurs devoirs religieux?
Leur ai-je permis le flirt ou des fréquentations régulières sans perspective du mariage dans un proche avenir?
Ai-je veillé à leurs compagnies?
Ai-je omis de les discipliner quand c’était nécessaire?
Leur ai-je donné un mauvais exemple?
Les ai-je scandalisés par des disputes avec mon conjoint en présence de mes enfants? En jurant ou blasphémant en leur présence?
Ai-je gardé la modestie à la maison?
Leur ai-je permis de porter des vêtements immodestes (mini jupes, pantalons serrés, robes ou pulls trop ajustés, corsages transparents, shorts courts, tenues de bain provocantes, etc.)? 2
Leur ai-je refusé la liberté de se marier ou de suivre une vocation religieuse?

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1 Les nouveaux nés devraient être baptisés dès que possible. Sauf prescription diocésaines particulières, il semble généralement admis qu’un nouveau-né devrait être baptisé dans l’intervalle de une semaine ou dix jours environ après sa naissance. Beaucoup de catholiques repoussent le baptême à une quinzaine ou un peu plus. L’idée d’administrer le baptême dans les trois jours après la naissance est considérée comme trop stricte. Saint Alphonse, suivant l’opinion commune, pensait qu’un délai non motivé au-delà de dix ou onze jours serait un péché grave. Par rapport à la coutume moderne, connue et non corrigée par les Ordinaires locaux, un délai non motivé au delà d’un mois serait un péché grave. S’il n’y a pas de danger probable pour l’enfant, les parents ne peuvent être convaincus de péché grave en différant le baptême un peu au-delà de trois semaines au plus, mais l’usage de faire baptiser un nouveau-né dans l’intervalle d’environ une semaine ou dix jours après la naissance est fort recommandable et en vérité, une date plus précoce peut être recommandée à juste titre. — H. Davis S.J., Moral and Pastoral Theology, Vol. III, Pg.65, Sheed and Ward, New York, 1935

2 Demander le feuillet LF05 Règles Mariales pour la Modestie dans le vêtement.

Cinquième Commandement:

Tu ne tueras pas.

Ai-je provoqué, désiré ou hâté la mort ou la blessure physique de quelqu’un?
Ai-je entretenu de la haine contre quelqu’un?
Ai-je opprimé quelqu’un?
Ai-je désiré la vengeance?
Ai-je été cause d’inimitié entre d’autres personnes?
Ai-je querellé ou combattu quelqu’un?
Ai-je souhaité du mal à quelqu’un?
Ai-je eu l’intention ou tenté de blesser ou de maltraiter d’autres personnes?
Y a-t-il quelqu’un avec qui je refuse de parler ou contre qui je garde rancune?
Ai-je pris plaisir aux malheurs de quelqu’un?
Ai-je été jaloux ou envieux?
Ai-je pratiqué ou essayé de pratiquer un avortement ou conseillé à quelqu’un de le faire
Ai-je, d’une manière ou d’une autre, mutilé mon corps sans nécessité?
Ai-je eu des pensées de suicide ou des tentatives?
Me suis-je enivré ? Ai-je pris des drogues interdites?
Ai-je trop mangé ou est-ce que je néglige de me nourrir convenablement? (c’est à dire avec des aliments sains)
Ai-je manqué à la correction fraternelle?
Ai-je nuit à l’âme de quelqu’un, surtout aux enfants en scandalisant par le mauvais exemple?
Ai-je nuit à moi-même en exposant mon âme aux tentations volontairement et sans nécessité. (par exemple: mauvaises émissions, mauvaises chansons, plages, etc.)?

Sixième et Neuvième Commandement:

Tu ne commettras pas d’adultère. Tu ne désireras pas la femme de ton prochain.

Ai-je refusé à mon conjoint, à ma conjointe, les droits du mariage?
Ai-je pratiqué le contrôle des naissances (pilules, appareils, retrait)?
Ai-je abusé des droits du mariage de quelque autre manière?
Ai-je commis l’adultère ou la fornication ( pratiques sexuelles prémaritales)?
Ai-je commis un péché contre nature dans le domaine de la pureté (homosexualité ou lesbianisme en pensée, en parole ou en action )?
Ai-je touché ou embrassé quelqu’un de manière impure?
Me suis-je engagé dans des baisers prolongés et passionnés en dehors du mariage ?
Me suis-je engagé dans des affections désordonnées?
Ai-je pratiqué l’impureté solitairement ( masturbation )?
Ai-je entretenu des pensées impures et m’y suis-je complu?
Me suis-je laissé aller à des désirs sensuels pour quelqu’un ou ai-je volontairement désiré voir ou faire quelque chose d’impur?
Me suis-je laissé aller volontairement à quelque plaisir sexuel complet ou incomplet en dehors du mariage?
Ai-je été occasion de péché pour d’autres en portant des vêtements immodestes, trop serrés ou provocants de toute autre manière?
Ai-je agi pour provoquer ou occasionner chez les autres des pensées ou des désirs impurs délibérément ou par légèreté?
Ai-je fait des lectures indécentes ou regardé de mauvais film?
Ai-je regardé des films et des émissions érotiques ou la pornographie par internet ou permis à des enfants de le faire?
Ai-je prononcé des paroles ou raconté des histoires indécentes?
Ai-je écouté volontairement de telles histoires?
Me suis-je vanté de mes péchés ou complu dans les péchés du passé?
Me suis-je trouvé en compagnie impudique?
Ai-je consenti à des regards impudiques?
Ai-je négligé de contrôler mon imagination?
Ai-je prié tout de suite pour bannir de si mauvaises pensées et tentations?
Ai-je évité la paresse, la gourmandise, l’oisiveté et les occasions d’impureté?
Ai-je pris part à des danses immodestes et à des spectacles indécents?
Suis-je resté sans nécessité seul en compagnie de quelqu’un du sexe opposé en dehors du mariage?

Nota bene: Ne pas craindre de dire au prêtre tout péché d’impureté que vous avez pu commettre. Ne pas cacher ou essayer de déguiser de tels péchés. Le prêtre est là pour vous aider et vous pardonner. Rien de ce que vous dites ne le choquera, donc ne craignez pas, quelque puisse être votre honte.

Septième et Dixième Commandement:

Tu ne voleras pas. Tu ne convoitera pas les biens du prochains.

Ai-je volé quelque chose? Quoi ou combien?
Ai-je endommagé le bien des autres?
Ai-je par négligence abîmé le bien des autres?
Ai-je été négligent dans la gestion de l’argent et des biens d’autrui?
Ai-je triché ou fraudé?
Ai-je participé excessivement à des jeux d’argent?
Ai-je refusé ou négligé de payer mes dettes?
Ai-je acquis un bien notoirement volé?
Ai-je omis de rendre des objets prêtés?
Ai-je trompé mon employeur sur ma journée de travail?
Ai-je triché sur les salaires de mes employés?
Ai-je refusé ou négligé d’aider quelqu’un en urgente nécessité?
Ai-je omis de restituer en cas de vol, de tricherie ou de fraude?
Ai-je envié à un autre ce qu’il avait?
Ai-je été jaloux du bien d’autrui?
Ai-je été avare?
Ai-je été cupide et avare, accordant trop d’importance aux biens matériels et au confort? Mon cœur est-il porté vers les possessions terrestres ou les vrais trésors du Ciel ?

Huitième Commandement:

Tu ne porteras pas de faux témoignage envers ton prochain.

Ai-je menti à propos de quelqu’un?
Mes mensonges ont-ils causé un tort matériel ou spirituel?
Ai-je porté des jugements téméraires (c’est à dire cru fermement, sans preuve évidente à la culpabilité de quelqu’un dans un crime ou une faute morale?
Ai-je nui à la bonne réputation de quelqu’un en révélant des fautes vraies mais cachées (délation )?
Ai-je révélé les péchés d’autrui?
Ai-je été coupable de cafardage (c’est à dire d’avoir rapporté quelque chose de défavorable dit par quelqu’un à propos d’un autre de manière à créer l’inimitié entre eux)?
Ai-je encouragé ou prêté l’oreille à la diffusion du scandale concernant mon prochain?
Ai-je prêté de faux serments ou signé de faux documents?
Suis-je critique, négatif ou peu charitable dans ma conversation?
Ai-je flatté les autres?

Les Sept Péchés Capitaux et les Vertus opposées.

Orgueil..............................................Humilité
Avarice............................................Libéralité
Luxure.............................................Chasteté
Colère...............................................Douceur
Gourmandise....................................Tempérance
Jalousie...........................................Amour fraternel
Paresse............................................Effort

Cinq effets de l’Orgueil

La vaine gloiren a. Vantardise b. Dissimulation/Duplicité
Ambition
Mépris des autres
Colère / Vengeance / Ressentiment
Entêtement / Obstination

Neuf manières d’être instrument de péché pour d’autres.

A. Ai-je sciemment été cause de péché ?
B. Ai-je coopéré au péché des autres ?

Le conseil
Le commandement
Le consentement
La provocation
La louange ou la flatterie
La dissimulation
La participation
Le silence
La défense du mal accompli.

Les Quatre Péchés qui crient vengeance au Ciel.

Le meurtre volontaire
La Sodomie ou le Lesbianisme
L’oppression des pauvres
La fraude sur le juste salaire du travailleur.

Les Six Commandements de l’Eglise.

Ai-je entendu la Messe le dimanche et les fêtes d’obligation?
Ai-je pratiqué le jeûne et l’abstinence les jours désignés et ai-je observé le jeûne eucharistique?
Me suis-je confessé au moins une fois l’an?
Ai-je reçu la Sainte Eucharistie au temps de Pâques?
Ai-je contribué au soutien de l’Eglise dans la mesure où je le dois?
Ai-je observé les lois de l’Eglise concernant le mariage (c’est à dire le mariage sans présence d’un prêtre ou mariage avec un parent ou non-catholique)?

Les Cinq Blasphèmes contre le Cœur Immaculé de Marie.

Ai-je blasphémé contre l’Immaculée Conception?
Ai-je blasphémé contre la Virginité Perpétuelle de Marie?
Ai-je blasphémé contre la Divine Maternité de Notre Dame ? Ai-je manqué à reconnaître Notre Dame comme Mère de tous les hommes?
Ai-je cherché officiellement à semer dans les cœurs des enfants l’indifférence ou le mépris, ou même la haine de ce Cœur Immaculé?
L’ai-je outragée directement dans Ses Saintes Images?

Finalement:

Ai-je reçu la Sainte Communion en état de péché mortel? (Sacrilège)

Examen des péchés véniels d’après St Antoine-Marie Claret.

L’âme devrait éviter tous les péchés véniels, spécialement ceux qui ouvrent la voie du péché mortel. Ce n’est pas assez , mon âme, de prendre la ferme résolution de souffrir la mort plutôt que de commettre un péché mortel. Il est nécessaire de former une résolution semblable par rapport au péché véniel. Celui qui ne trouve pas en lui-même cette volonté ne peut trouver la sécurité. Rien ne peut nous donner une certaine sécurité du salut éternel comme une vigilance incessante pour éviter même le moindre péché véniel et un sérieux remarquable en tous points touchant toutes les pratiques de la vie spirituelle - sérieux dans la prière et les rapports avec Dieu, sérieux dans la mortification et le renoncement, sérieux dans l’humilité et l’acceptation du mépris, sérieux dans l’obéissance et le renoncement à sa volonté propre, sérieux dans l’amour de Dieu et du prochain . Celui qui veut atteindre ce sérieux et le garder, doit nécessairement prendre la résolution d’éviter toujours spécialement les péchés véniels

suivants:

Le péché d’admettre en son cœur tout soupçon non fondé, tout jugement injuste contre le prochain.
Le péché d’entrer en conversation sur les défauts d’autrui et de manquer à la charité de toute autre manière même légèrement.
Le péché d’omettre, par paresse, nos pratiques spirituelles ou de les accomplir avec négligence volontaire.
Le péché d’avoir une affection désordonnée pour quelqu’un.
Le péché d’avoir une vaine estime de soi-même ou une vaine satisfaction dans ce qui nous concerne
Le péché de recevoir le Saint Sacrement de manière insouciante, avec des distractions et autres irrévérences et sans préparation sérieuse.
Impatiences, ressentiment, tout manquement à accepter des déceptions comme venant de la Main de Dieu ; car cela met obstacle à la voie des décrets et dispositions de la Divine Providence par rapport à nous-mêmes.
Le péché de se donner occasion de ternir même de loin l’éclat immaculé de la sainte pureté.
La faute de cacher volontairement à ceux qui devraient les connaître, les mauvaises inclinations, les faiblesses et les mortifications, en cherchant à poursuivre la route de la vertu, non sous la direction de l’obéissance, mais en se laissant guider par ses propres caprices.

Nota bene: Ceci s’entend de circonstances où nous pourrions avoir une direction qui mérite d’être recherchée, mais nous préférons suivre nos faibles lumières personnelles).

Prière pour une bonne confession

O mon Dieu, par mes péchés détestables, j’ai crucifié de nouveau Votre Divin Fils et L’ai tourné en dérision. A cause de cela, j’ai mérité Votre Colère et me suis rendu digne des feux de l’Enfer. Combien aussi j’ai été ingrat envers Vous, mon Père Céleste, qui m’avez tiré du néant, m’avez racheté par le Précieux Sang de Votre Fils et m’avez sanctifié par Vos Saints Sacrements et le Saint Esprit. Mais dans Votre Miséricorde, vous m’avez réservé cette confession. Recevez –moi de nouveau comme Votre fils prodigue et accordez-moi de bien me confesser pour que je puisse recommencer à Vous aimer de tout mon cœur et de toute mon âme et par conséquent garder vos commandements et souffrir patiemment toute expiation temporelle qui reste à accomplir. J’espère obtenir de Votre bonté et puissance, la vie éternelle au Paradis. Par Jésus-Christ Notre Seigneur. Amen.

Note Finale

N’oubliez pas de confesser vos péchés avec regret surnaturel en même temps que ferme résolution de ne plus retomber dans le péché et d’éviter les occasions prochaines de péché. Demandez à votre Confesseur de vous aider en toute difficulté qui entraverait une bonne confession. Accomplissez promptement votre pénitence.

Acte de Contrition

O mon Dieu, je regrette du fond du cœur de vous avoir offensé. Et je déteste tous mes péchés, parce que je redoute la perte du Ciel et les peines de l’Enfer, mais surtout parce que mes péchés Vous offensent, mon Dieu, qui êtes toute bonté et qui méritez tout mon amour. Je prends la ferme résolution, avec le secours de Votre Grâce, de confesser mes péchés, de faire pénitence et d’amender ma vie. Amen.


EXAMEN DE CONSCIENCE POUR ADULTES

Résumé: Il faut rechercher au moins tous les péchés mortels dont on se souvient et qui n’ont pas encore été confessés dans une bonne confession et à un prêtre ayant les pouvoirs pour absoudre. Un péché est mortel s’il y a : gravité de matière, pleine connaissance et plein consentement. Indiquer, dans la mesure du possible, leur espèce et leur nombre (même pour les désirs). Pour cela on demande à Dieu la grâce de bien connaître ses fautes et on s’examine sur les Dix Commandements et les préceptes de l’Église, sur les péchés capitaux et les devoirs de notre état. Il faudra penser à accuser également les péchés qui ont pu être commis par omission. N.B.: La confession est sacrilège lorsqu’on a volontairement caché des fautes mortelles. COMMANDEMENTS DE DIEU l er Commandement : « Tu adoreras Dieu seul et tu l’aimeras plus que tout. » Dieu est-il au centre de ma vie ? Est-il bien pour moi un Père à l’amour duquel je réponds par un amour total et une généreuse obéissance ? Jésus est-il vraiment mon Maître et mon modèle, celui dont je vis par la foi et les sacrements ? Manquements par omission ou négligence dans les prières (matin, soir, dans les tentations) et la réception des sacrements. Tiédeur. Respect humain pour manifester sa foi. Parole ou acte contre la religion. Adhésion à des mouvements incompatibles avec la foi catholique. Superstitions, spiritisme. Avoir tenté Dieu. Péchés contre la foi : refus d’adhérer à une ou plusieurs vérités révélées. Doutes volontaires. Négligeance dans sa sa propre formation religieuse. Lectures, émissions et spectacles portant atteinte à la foi ou à la morale. Péchés contre l’espérance : manque de confiance en la bonté et la providence de Dieu. Découragement, désespoir. Compter sur ses seules forces. Prétexter de la bonté de Dieu pour pécher. Ne pas désirer le ciel. Péchés contre la charité : indifférence par rapport à Dieu ; absence de prière et de pratique religieuse. Sacrilèges en profanant les choses saintes, en particulier confessions (incomplètes volontairement) et communions sacrilèges (reçues en état de péché mortel). Envers le prochain : refus de voir Dieu dans nos frères; haines, mépris, moqueries ; refus d’assister son prohain dans les graves nécessités. 2e Commandement : « Tu ne prononceras le nom de Dieu qu’avec respect. » Transgresser les serments et vœux faits en son nom. Associer son nom à des serments faux ou inutiles. Blasphémer son nom, celui de la Vierge ou des saints. Prononcer des imprécations contre soi ou contre autrui. 3e Commandement : « Tu sanctifieras le jour du Seigneur. » Avoir manqué à la sainte Messe par sa faute, y être arrivé en retard. Avoir fait ou fait faire “des travaux et des occupations qui empêchent le culte dû à Dieu, la joie propre au jour du Seigneur, ou la détente convenable de l’esprit et du corps” (can.1247). Avoir été à des amusements ou réunions dangereuses pour la foi ou les mœurs. 4e Commandement : « Tu honoreras ton père et ta mère. » Enfants de tous âges : Manque d’amour, de respect, d’obéissance (dans les limites de leur autorité), de reconnaissance et d’assistance (matérielle, spirituelle) aux parents. Parents : ne pas témoigner de l’affection à tous ses enfants ; ne pas leur donner l’exemple d’une vie vertueuse et chrétienne. Envers ceux encore sous leur dépendance : Association Notre Dame de Chrétienté manquements dans leur formation humaine et chrétienne (instruction religieuse, choix de l’école); et dans ses devoirs de surveillance, de conseil et de corrections nécessaires. Tous : disputes d’intérêt en famille. Manquements dans l’accomplissement du travail dans le respect dû à l’autorité (dans le métier, la vie collective) ou dans les responsabilités des dirigeants (conditions de travail honnêtes, juste salaire, respect vis-à-vis des employés). Insoumission aux lois civiles justes (impôts, service militaire, devoir civique). 5e Commandement : « Tu ne tueras point. » Meurtre, tentative de suicide, imprudence exposant à tuer ou blesser son prochain (sport à risque, transgression grave et volontaire du code de la route, conduite en état d’ivresse). Colères, disputes, vengeances, refus de pardon, rancunes, envie, jalousie, drogue. Excès dans les boissons, gourmandise. Attitude insultante et scandaleuse. Participation (par action ou par omission), à la stérilisation, à l’avortement, à l’euthanasie, au suicide. Incitation à la violence, à la lutte des classes. Haine raciale ou ethnique. 6e et 9e Commandements : « Tu ne commettras pas d’impureté. Tu n’auras pas le désir impur volontaire. » Pensées, désirs et actes commis seul ou avec d’autres contre la pureté. Conversations et chansons déshonnêtes. Lectures, spectacles (TV, films,...), fréquentation de lieux exposant à l’impureté. Responsabilité dans le péché d’autrui (danse, mode et attitude provocantes). Personnes mariées : Limitation de l’usage du mariage aux jours inféconds sans cause sérieuse. Moyens contraceptifs, ponctuels ou permanents. Refus des droits du conjoint. Adultère (pensées, désirs, actions). Infidélité affective. Liaison extra-matrimoniale. Divorce. “Remariage”. Fiancés : Manifestations de tendresse excessivement sensuelles. Relations pré matrimoniales. Cohabitation. 7e et 10e Commandements : « Tu ne voleras pas. Tu ne désireras pas injustement le bien des autres. » Participation direct ou indirect à des vols, fraudes, injustices. Dettes impayées. Non restitution. Recel d’objets volés. Tort causé dans les ventes, contrats, transactions. Tricheries. Fraudes. Pots de vin. Non-respect des lois sociales justes sur le travail, les assurances... Travail bâclé ; perte de temps. Dépenses excessives, par luxe, vanité, etc. Gaspillage. 8e Commandement : « Tu ne mentiras point. » Mensonges. Faux témoignage. Accusations injustes. Jugements téméraires. Calomnies (personnes ou institutions). Secrets violés. Médisances, ragots. Refus de réparer ou de rectifier COMMANDEMENTS DE L’ÉGLISE 1. Tu sanctifieras les dimanches et fêtes d’obligation (en France : Noël, Pâques, Ascension, La Pentecôte, Assomption, Toussaint) : par l’assistance à la messe et l’abstention d’activités contraires à la sanctification du jour du Seigneur (voir 3e commandement de Dieu). 2. Tu te confesseras au moins une fois l’an. 3. Tu communieras chaque année au Temps pascal (de Pâques à la Pentecôte). 4. Tu jeûneras ou feras abstinence les jours fixés. Jeûne et abstinence: Mercredi des Cendres et Vendredi Saint ; abstinence : tous les vendredis de l’année (les vendredis autres que ceux du Carême, on peut remplacer l’abstinence par une autre pénitence). 5. Tu contribueras selon tes moyens aux dépenses de l’Eglise. Association Notre Dame de Chrétienté DEVOIRS D’ÉTAT 1. Devoirs de chrétien : effort pour tendre à la perfection de la charité ; témoignage de cohérence entre la foi et les œuvres ; fidélité à la vocation reçue de Dieu ; dimension apostolique de sa vie ; approfondissement de sa foi ; aide à l’Eglise ; respect et obéissance à la hiérarchie dans ce qui dépend de son autorité. 2. Devoirs dans la famille : fidélité et don de soi dans le mariage ; générosité dans la procréation et l’éducation des enfants ; amour et entraide ; affection et assistance aux ascendants. 3. Devoirs dans la profession application au travail ; sens de la justice dans les rapports professionnels, dans les contrats. 4. Devoirs dans la cité : participation à la vie de la cité, devoir électoral ; respect des lois justes ; effort pour faire changer les lois injustes (avortement, ...) ; solidarité avec les plus démunis. MAÎTRISE DE SON TEMPÉRAMENT Il faut soumettre à la raison et à la loi de Dieu les passions déréglées par le péché originel et nos propres péchés. On distingue sept tendances qui nous inclinent au mal : - l’orgueil : amour désordonné de soi-même qui engendre l’ambition, la présomption, la vaine gloire, les attitudes hautaines, les vanités mondaines. - l’avarice : attachement désordonné aux richesses qui engendre l’injustice, l’endurcissement du cœur, le défaut de générosité pour faire l’aumône, l’aveuglement de l’esprit. - la luxure : vice contraire, voir 6e et 9e commandements. - L’envie : nous attriste à la vue des qualités ou des succès d’autrui ; engendre la calomnie, la jalousie, les discordes, les actions portant tort à autrui. - la gourmandise : excès dans le manger et le boire (alcoolisme) qui met en danger notre santé et nous fait perdre la possession de nous-mêmes. - la colère : fait perdre le contrôle de soi-même et porte aux injures, querelles, coups... - la paresse : incline à fuir l’effort dans le travail, l’accomplissement des devoirs. Association Notre Dame de Chrétienté

Mit freundlichen Grüssen

Avec mes meilleurs salutations
Distinti saluti
Kind regards, yours sincerely
Saludos cordiales
בברכה, בכבוד רב
С уважение
ขอแสดงความนับถือ
你的真诚的
المخلص

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Mobilisation générale: épargnes, retraites... volées légalement ! Comme à Chypre et en Grèce... Arnaque de la création monétaire du néant, ex nihilo... Grâce à monnaie-pleine, on peut rédiger ensemble un projet de loi d'application ou un contre-projet et reprendre ainsi toutes les meilleures solutions, BNS, RBI, monnaie, crédits, etc...

http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2015/12/projet-de-loi-dapplication-de-monnaie.html

http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2015/12/swiss-positive-money-social-credit.html

Thème pour l'année 2016: Donner à chacun ce qui lui est dû par un dividende social à tous!
à faire circuler largement, merci, le monde est déjà meilleur grâce à ce simple geste de solidarité.

Invitations 2017
In English
http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2016/10/free-invitations-every-year.html

en français:
http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2016/10/invitations-gratuites-chaque-annee.html

Avec mes meilleurs salutations
Distinti saluti
Kind regards, yours sincerely

Nouvelle adresse: 23, Av. Edouard Dapples, CH 1006 LAUSANNE. SUISSE

Tél: international ++ 41 21 616 88 88

Mobilisation générale: épargnes, retraites... volées légalement !

http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2015/12/projet-de-loi-dapplication-de-monnaie.html

http://desiebenthal.blogspot.ch/2015/12/swiss-positive-money-social-credit.html

Donner à chaque souverain, le peuple est le souverain en Suisse, sa part des créations monétaires volées actuellement par les banques commerciales. La banque nationale suisse doit devenir une coopérative, et pas une société anonyme, qui distribue à chacun et chacune ce qui lui est dû par un dividende social à tous dès la conception ! Voter oui à l'initiative monnaies pleines, monnaies au pluriel qui respectent notamment les wirs, voir www.wir.ch
à faire circuler largement, merci, le monde est déjà meilleur grâce à ce simple geste de solidarité.

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